Effective control of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immunochemotherapy. Histiocyte Society.
The familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a lethal disorder. Although the prognosis for Epstein-Barr virus-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) remains uncertain, numerous reports indicate that it can also be fatal in a substantial proportion of cases. We therefore assessed the potential of immunochemotherapy with a core combination of steroids and etoposide to control EBV-HLH in 17 infants and children who met stringent diagnostic criteria for this reactive disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Treatment of life-threatening emergencies was left to the discretion of participating investigators and typically included either intravenous Ig or cyclosporin A (CSA). Five patients (29%) entered complete remission during the induction phase (1 to 2 months), whereas 10 others (57%) required additional treatment to achieve this status. In 2 cases, immunochemotherapy was ineffective, prompting allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Severe but reversible myelosuppression was a common finding; adverse late sequelae were limited to epileptic activity in one child and chronic EBV infection in 2 others. Fourteen of the 17 patients treated with immunochemotherapy have maintained their complete responses for 4+ to 39+ months (median, 15+ months), suggesting a low probability of disease recurrence. These results provide a new perspective on EBV-HLH, showing effective control (and perhaps cure) of the majority of EBV-HLH cases without bone marrow transplantation, using steroids and etoposide, with or without immunomodulatory agents. (+info)
Cytokine mRNA profiles in Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.
Cytokine mRNA patterns were analyzed in 11 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) specimens using qualitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In each case, a pattern of IL2-, IFN gamma-, IL4+, IL10+ was seen. A similar pattern was observed in a spleen sample from 1 patient with contemporaneous PTLD elsewhere. Semiquantitative RT-PCR for cytokine message was performed using RNA from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens obtained from 2 patients with pulmonary PTLD. In both cases, IL4 message predominated. Reduction of message coincided with resolution of the tumors. The pattern differed from that seen in 1 patient with acute pulmonary rejection, in which RT-PCR of BAL cells showed predominance of IL6 and IFN gamma. We conclude that at least some PTLDs exist within a T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-like cytokine microenvironment. The presence of a similar mRNA pattern in an extratumoral specimen at the time of PTLD suggests that it may reflect a systemic phenomenon. Disappearance of this pattern following PTLD resolution indicates its dynamic nature and is consistent with the hypothesis that specific cytokines contribute to the development of PTLDs. (+info)
B cell lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, treatment and outcome.
Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (> or = 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age > or = 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died >1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and longterm survival received alpha interferon (alphaIFN). Of seven patients treated with alphaIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that alphaIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made. (+info)
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease derives from post-germinal center B cells.
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease (HIV-HD) displays several peculiarities when compared with HD of the general population. These include overrepresentation of clinically aggressive histologic types and frequent infection of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Recently, we have reported that the histogenesis of HD of the general population may be assessed by monitoring the expression pattern of BCL-6, a transcription factor expressed in germinal center (GC) B cells, and of CD138/syndecan-1 (syn-1), a proteoglycan associated with post-GC, terminal B-cell differentiation. In this study, we have applied these two markers to the study of HIV-HD histogenesis and correlated their expression status to the virologic features of this disease. We have found that RS cells of all histologic categories of HIV-HD consistently display the BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) phenotype and thus reflect post-GC B cells. Although BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) RS cells of HIV-HD express CD40, they are not surrounded by CD40 ligand-positive (CD40L+) reactive T lymphocytes, which, in HD of the general population, are thought to regulate the disease phenotype through CD40/CD40L interactions. Conversely, RS cells of virtually all HIV-HD express the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which, being functionally homologous to CD40, may contribute, at least in part, to the modulation of the HIV-HD phenotype. (+info)
Restricted low-level human antibody responses against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 in a subgroup of patients with EBV-associated diseases.
Human antibody responses to latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related disease syndromes were analyzed in detail. Only by immunoblot analysis with purified recombinant LMP1 and by IFA on recombinant LMP1-expressing insect cells could human antibodies directed against LMP1 be detected. Low serum levels of LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in 3 of 8 EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease patients, 3 of 40 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 2 of 23 Burkitt's lymphoma patients, and 1 of 27 non-Burkitt's lymphoma patients. No LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in healthy EBV carriers, infectious mononucleosis patients, or patients with chronic EBV disease. All sera contained significant levels of EBV antibodies directed against the immunodominant EBV proteins and peptides. From this study, it can be concluded that LMP1 is a protein with a very low immunogenicity for the humoral immune response in humans. (+info)
Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line.
The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. Immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive K562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients. (+info)
Epstein-Barr virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease after non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
There is a growing interest in the evaluation of non-myeloablative conditioning therapy for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Such regimens are expected to produce less toxicity while allowing both engraftment and a graft-versus-disease effect from the large number of donor-derived immunocompetent T lymphocytes given with the stem cells. Heavy immunosuppression used in recipients may have unexpected consequences. We describe the occurrence of a fatal Epstein-Barr virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (BLPD) early after such a non-myeloablated allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant in a heavily pretreated patient. (+info)
Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) receptor CD21 on peripheral B lymphocytes of long-term EBV- adults.
Primary infections with EBV are rarely observed after the age of 20. Some individuals even remain seronegative all their lives. Previously, a lack of EBV receptors on B cells of persistently EBV- adults was described as a reason for long-term EBV-seronegativity. The present study examined the CD21 receptor status of 20 repeatedly EBV- healthy adults and 32 EBV+ volunteers by means of flow cytometry. CD21 molecules on the surface of CD19+ B cells were quantified using anti-IgG-coated microbeads. The percentage of CD19+/CD21+ B lymphocytes was slightly lower in the peripheral blood of EBV- donors, but the CD21 antibody binding capacity on CD19+ B cells showed no significant differences between EBV- and EBV+ adults. In vitro studies showed an equally good EBV transformability of peripheral B lymphocytes of EBV- and EBV+ donors. Since HLA-DR was recently described as a co-receptor for EBV infection of B cells, we also determined HLA-DRB1 alleles in the EBV- group. We found a significant negative association of EBV-seronegativity with HLA-DR13 in comparison with 111 healthy blood donors. In summary, a biologically significant lack of the EBV receptor CD21 on peripheral B lymphocytes of persistently EBV- adults was excluded as a reason for long-term EBV-seronegativity. (+info)