Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine.
A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67. (+info)
Identification of a clinically relevant immunodominant region of collagen IV in Goodpasture disease.
BACKGROUND: The characteristic feature of Goodpasture disease is the occurrence of an autoantibody response to the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen [alpha3(IV)NC1] in the alveolar and glomerular basement membrane. These antibodies are associated with the development of a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, with or without lung hemorrhage, whereas autoantibodies specific for the other alpha chains of the heterotrimeric type IV collagen probably do not cause disease. In this study, we have investigated whether differences in fine specificity of autoimmune recognition of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlate with clinical outcome. METHODS: For mapping of antibody binding to type IV collagen, chimeric collagen constructs were generated in which parts of the alpha3(IV)NC1 domain were replaced by the corresponding sequences of homologous nonreactive alpha1(IV). The different recombinant collagen chimeras allowed the analysis of antibody specificities in 77 sera from well-documented patients. RESULTS: One construct that harbors the aminoterminal third of the alpha3(IV)NC1 was recognized by all sera, indicating that it represents the dominant target of the B-cell response in Goodpasture disease. Seventy percent of the samples recognized other parts of the molecule as well. However, only reactivity to the N-terminus of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlated with prognosis, that is, kidney survival after six months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the crucial importance of antibody recognition of this particular domain for the pathogenesis of Goodpasture disease, thereby opening new avenues for the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. (+info)
Minimal cross-linking and epitope requirements for CD40-dependent suppression of apoptosis contrast with those for promotion of the cell cycle and homotypic adhesions in human B cells.
Eight different CD40 mAb shared with soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (sCD40LT) the capacity to rescue germinal center (GC) B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and to suppress antigen receptor-driven apoptosis in group I Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Three mAb (G28-5, M2 and M3) mimicked sCD40LT in its ability to promote strong homotypic adhesion in resting B cells, whereas others (EA5, BL-OGY/C4 and 5C3) failed to stimulate strong clustering. Binding studies revealed that only those mAb that promoted strong B cell clustering bound at, or near to, the CD40L binding site. While all eight mAb and sCD40LT were capable of synergizing with IL-4 or phorbol ester for promoting DNA synthesis in resting B cells, co-stimulus-independent activation of the cells into cycle through CD40 related directly to the extent of receptor cross-linking. Thus, mAb which bound outside the CD40L binding site synergized with sCD40LT for promoting DNA synthesis; maximal levels of stimulation were achieved by presenting any of the mAb on CD32 transfectants in the absence of sCD40LT or by cross-linking bound sCD40LT with a second antibody. Monomeric sCD40L, which was able to promote rescue of GC B cells from apoptosis, was unable to drive resting B cells into cycle. These studies demonstrate that CD40-dependent rescue of human B cells from apoptosis requires minimal cross-linking and is essentially epitope independent, whereas the requirements for promoting cell cycle progression and homotypic adhesion are more stringent. Possible mechanisms underlying these differences and their physiological significance are discussed. (+info)
Competition of Abeta amyloid peptide and apolipoprotein E for receptor-mediated endocytosis.
The genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is associated with the age of onset and relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast to apoE3, the wild type allele, apoE4 confers an increased risk of late-onset AD. We demonstrate that the beta-amyloid peptide isoforms Abeta (1-28), Abeta (1-40), and Abeta (1-43) compete for the cellular metabolism of apoE3 and apoE4 containing beta-very low density lipoproteins. An antibody raised against Abeta (1-28) cross-reacted with recombinant apoE. Epitope mapping revealed positive amino acid clusters as common epitopes of Abeta (13 through 17; HHQKL) and apoE (residues 144 through 148; LRKRL), both regions known to be heparin binding domains. Abeta in which amino acids 13 through 17 (HHQKL) were replaced by glycine (GGQGL) failed to compete with the cellular uptake of apoE enriched betaVLDL. These observations indicate that Abeta and apoE are taken up into cells by a common pathway involving heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (+info)
Identification of neutralizing epitopes on a European strain of swine vesicular disease virus.
Six neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used to isolate MAb neutralization-resistant (MAR) mutants from a recent European strain of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), ITL/9/93. Sequencing of MAR mutants identified two epitopes located at positions analogous to sites 2A (VP2) and 3B (VP3) on poliovirus (PV) which have been previously identified on a Japanese strain of SVDV. A third epitope near to the C terminus of VP1, not previously recognized on SVDV, was tentatively identified in a region analogous to site 1 of PV. A fourth epitope, located in the C-terminal region of VP3, has never before been recognized as a site of neutralization on picornaviruses. All four epitopes were predicted to be surface-exposed. (+info)
The major immunogenic epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 are encoded by sequence domains which vary among nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies and EBV-associated cell lines.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is a protein expressed consistently in EBV-infected cells and EBV-associated malignant tissues. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against the C terminus of EBNA-1 and evaluated for the detection of EBNA-1 in different cell lines. The epitopes recognized were mapped. Since sequence variations of EBNA-1 have been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and in infected healthy individuals, the ability of these MAbs to recognize a recombinant protein derived from an NPC biopsy was also analysed. MAb 4H11 appeared to react with EBNA-1 sequences from different sources, whereas MAbs 5C11, 5F12 and 8F6 failed to recognize a recombinant EBNA-1 protein cloned from an NPC patient. Using different recombinant EBNA-1 fragments in an immunoblot format, this study demonstrates that the domain bounded by amino acids 408 and 498 is very immunogenic in mice in that epitopes in this region are recognized by various MAbs. Amino acid sequences of EBNA-1 were also deduced from nucleotide sequences amplified from three Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, two spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines, two NPC biopsies and one NPC hybrid cell line, NPC-KT, and compared to the sequence from B95-8. The amino acid sequence of EBNA-1 in Akata is almost identical to that in an NPC biopsy, except for amino acid 585. The results of this study indicate that the immunogenic epitopes of EBNA-1 are highly variable. (+info)
Residues critical for duck hepatitis B virus neutralization are involved in host cell interaction.
To date, no detailed analysis of the neutralization properties of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) has been reported, and it is not clear whether any of the known neutralization epitopes correspond to the viral receptor binding site or to sequences involved in the cell entry pathway. We demonstrate here that antibodies directed against two overlapping peptides (amino acids 83 to 97 and 93 to 107), covering the sequences of most DHBV pre-S neutralizing epitopes, both inhibit virus binding to primary duck hepatocytes and neutralize virus infectivity. An extensive mutagenesis of the motif 88WTP90, which is the shortest sequence of the epitope recognized by the virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) 900 was performed in order to define the amino acids involved in these interactions. Single point mutations within this epitope affected neither virus replication nor infectivity but abolished virus neutralization by MAb 900 completely. Interestingly, mutants with two and three consecutive residue replacements (SIP and SIH) within this epitope retained replication competence but were no longer infectious. The loss of infectivity of SIH and SIP mutant particles was associated with significantly reduced binding to primary duck hepatocytes and could be rescued by trans complementation with wild-type pre-S protein. Taken together, these results indicate that each amino acid of the DHBV pre-S sequence 88WTP90 is critical for recognition by the neutralizing MAb 900 and that replacement of the first two or all three residues strongly reduces virus interaction with hepatocytes and abrogates infectivity. These data imply that the motif 88WTP90 contains key residues which are critical for interaction with both the neutralizing MAb and the host cell. (+info)
Antigenic characterization and cytolocalization of P35, the major Mycoplasma penetrans antigen.
Mycoplasma penetrans is a mycoplasma with unique morphology, recently identified in urine samples collected from HIV-infected patients. This mycoplasma has been found to be statistically associated with HIV infection, and to be cytopathic in vitro. The dominant antigen recognized during natural and experimental infections is an abundant lipoprotein, P35, which, upon extraction, segregates in the Triton X-114 detergent phase. It is used as the basis of M. penetrans-specific serological assays. Although mycoplasma lipoproteins, including M. penetrans P35, are the main antigens recognized by the host humoral immune response, very little is known about the nature of the epitopes involved. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that all P35 is exposed at the cell surface and is distributed all over the membrane. P35 linear B-epitopes were mapped by an ELISA approach based on a set of overlapping peptides covering the entire mature polypeptide. The immunoreactivity of the peptides was first tested with sera from immunized animals. The dominant B-epitopes were found at the C- and N-terminal regions, in partial agreement with algorithmic predictions. Patient sera were evaluated with the same assay. Only some reacted with linear epitopes whereas others did not, indicating the importance of P35 nonsequential epitopes. Statistical analysis of the results allowed the definition of a set of peptides which were clearly immunodominant. Finally, the P35-encoding gene was modified by in vitro mutagenesis to allow the production and purification of a recombinant protein (rP35delta0) in Escherichia coil. The antigenicity of rP35delta0 was tested by Western blotting and compared to that of another recombinant product, rP35delta3, a truncated P35 polypeptide. Although rP35delta0 reacted with the M. penetrans-seropositive patient sera tested, rP35delta3 was only immunoreactive with one of six sera. This result confirmed that P35-nonsequential epitopes dominate during M. penetrans infection. Our results have important implications for the understanding of lipoprotein antigenicity during mycoplasma infections. In addition, the P35-derived immunodominant synthetic peptides defined in this study, as well as the purified rP35delta0, provide the antigenic material for the necessary improvement of M. penetrans serological assays. (+info)