Occlusion of the internal carotid artery by means of microcoils for preventing epistaxis caused by guttural pouch mycosis in horses.
Occlusion of the internal carotid artery by insertion of intravascular platinum microcoils for guttural pouch mycosis was experimentally evaluated in 9 healthy adult Thoroughbred horses. The internal carotid artery was ligated to its origin, and an arteriotomy was made distal to the ligature, which was then occluded by insertion of the microcoil approximately 13 cm distal to its origin. Cessation of blood flow was determined visually and by angiography at the arteriotomy site. Six horses were evaluated for complication clinically and by endoscopy after surgery. One horse was necropsied after 30 days of surgery for histological evaluation of artery thrombus formation. In the other 3 horses, the blood flow of the right internal carotid artery was monitored, before and after microcoil occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. One or 2 microcoils stopped blood flow within a few minutes. No other abnormal findings were observed clinically. Thrombus was observed in the occluded segment of 1 horse 30 days after insertion; but no abnormalities were detected. The blood flow in the right internal carotid artery increased by approximately 28-58% after occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. This microcoil vascular occlusion technique causes an effective thrombosis, and based on experimental studies and clinical application in 2 horses with epistaxis due to guttural pouch mycosis, this technique would appear to be safe and efficacious. (+info)
A new animal model for relapsing polychondritis, induced by cartilage matrix protein (matrilin-1).
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) differs from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in that primarily cartilage outside diarthrodial joints is affected. The disease usually involves trachea, nose, and outer ears. To investigate whether the tissue distribution of RP may be explained by a specific immune response, we immunized rats with cartilage matrix protein (matrilin-1), a protein predominantly expressed in tracheal cartilage. After 2-3 weeks, some rats developed a severe inspiratory stridor. They had swollen noses and/or epistaxis, but showed neither joint nor outer ear affection. The inflammatory lesions involved chronic active erosions of cartilage. Female rats were more susceptible than males. The disease susceptibility was controlled by both MHC genes (f, l, d, and a haplotypes are high responders, and u, n, and c are resistant) and non-MHC genes (the LEW strain is susceptible; the DA strain is resistant). However, all strains mounted a pronounced IgG response to cartilage matrix protein. The initiation and effector phase of the laryngotracheal involvement causing the clinical symptoms were shown to depend on alphabeta T cells. Taken together, these results represent a novel model for RP: matrilin-1-induced RP. Our findings also suggest that different cartilage proteins are involved in pathogenic models of RP and RA. (+info)
Epistaxis: study of aetiology, site and side of bleeding.
The present study comprises 300 cases of epistaxis. The analysis of these cases revealed a higher incidence in young males. Unilateral bleeding was seen in almost 60% each of indoor and outdoor cases. Litte's area was the most common site responsible for epistaxis in 28.8% of the indoor and 26.2% of the outdoor patients. Hypertension was the most common systemic cause among indoor patients (62.2%) and sickle cell disorder among the outdoor patients (37.5%). Atrophic rhinitis with myiasis was the local cause of epistaxis in maximum (27%) of the indoor patients and traumatic epistaxis was the commonest cause (33%) among outdoor patients-fingernail trauma in 75.9% of them. Idiopathic epistaxis contributed for 16.5% indoor and 26.1% of outdoor cases. Intractable epistaxis was seen in one case following accidental facial trauma. (+info)
Use of aspirin, epistaxis, and untreated hypertension as risk factors for primary intracerebral hemorrhage in middle-aged and elderly people.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increases exponentially with age, but the risk factors are not well known. We investigated lifestyle factors, previous diseases, and medications as risk factors for ICH in middle-aged and elderly people. METHODS: We compared 98 consecutive patients with primary ICH between 36 and 90 years of age with 206 community-based control subjects matched for age and sex. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for possible confounding variables were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: The independent risk factors for ICH were untreated hypertension (OR, 6.95; 95% CI, 3.06 to 15.8), previous ischemic stroke (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.70 to 8.63), epilepsy (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 2.49 to 76.6), recent strenuous physical exertion (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.95 to 8.10), and a history of epistaxis (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.28 to 6.62). In men, treated hypertension (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.03 to 6.93) was also a significant risk factor. Patients with a history of epistaxis who had used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin in high doses, had an increased risk for ICH (adjusted OR of epistaxis, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.11 to 6.81; adjusted OR of aspirin use, 14.7; 95% CI, 2.03 to 106). In addition, there was a significant (P:<0.01) positive interaction between the history of epistaxis and the use of aspirin on the risk for ICH. CONCLUSIONS: Epistaxis is a risk factor for ICH in middle-aged and elderly people, both independently and combined with the use of aspirin. Other independent risk factors are untreated hypertension, previous ischemic stroke, epilepsy, and recent strenuous physical exertion. Epistaxis may be a warning sign of an increased risk for ICH in subjects using aspirin. (+info)
SUMMARY: A case of recurrent glomus tympanicum presenting with epistaxis is described. CT and MR imaging revealed a homogeneously enhancing mass extending along the entire course of the eustachian tube, with a portion protruding into the nasopharynx. Glomus tumors tend to spread along the path of least resistance and may extend into the eustachian tube. The unique imaging appearance should place a glomus tumor high on the list of differential diagnoses. (+info)
Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Fresh intrapulmonary and oronasal haemorrhages in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might be markers for accidental or intentional smothering inappropriately diagnosed as SIDS. AIM: To compare the incidence, epidemiological association, and inter-relation of nasal haemorrhage, intrapulmonary haemorrhage, and intrathoracic petechiae in infant deaths certified as SIDS. METHODS: In SIDS cases from a large nationwide case-control study, a wide range of variables were compared in cases with and without reported nasal haemorrhage and, in a subgroup of cases, in those with and without pathologically significant intrapulmonary haemorrhage. RESULTS: Nasal haemorrhage was reported in 60 of 385 cases (15%) whose parents were interviewed. Pathologically significant intra-alveolar pulmonary haemorrhage was found in 47% of 115 cases studied, but was severe in only 7%. Infants with nasal haemorrhage had more haemorrhage into alveoli and air passages than age matched cases without nasal haemorrhage. In multivariate analysis, nasal haemorrhage was associated with younger infant age, bed sharing, and the infant being placed non-prone to sleep. Intrapulmonary haemorrhage was associated with the same three factors in univariate analysis, but in multivariate analysis only younger infant age remained statistically significant. There was no significant association between nasal or intra-alveolar haemorrhages and intrathoracic petechiae. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhages have common associations not shared with intrathoracic petechiae. Smothering is a possible common factor, although is unlikely to be the cause in most cases presenting as SIDS. (+info)
Planned splenectomy in treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
The results of a policy of treatment in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura based on previous observations on the natural history of the disease and its response to corticosteroids are described. The results of splenectomy were better when the history was less than 100 days. Three patterns of response to splenectomy were observed: complete remission, symptomatic remission, and relapse. The prognosis can be determined by the level of the platelet count six weeks after splenectomy. Corticosteroid treatment for more than three weeks before splenectomy noticeably increased the incidence of complications after operation. Splenectomy can safely be performed in pregnancy. The decision to operate should be made on the maternal condition and its response to corticosteroids. (+info)
Evolution of incidentally-discovered fusiform aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar arterial system: neuroimaging features suggesting progressive aneurysm growth.
This study investigated the natural history and biological behavior of incidental fusiform aneurysms in four patients with incidental fusiform aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar arterial system who had been followed up for more than 3 years (mean 3.5 years). Two lesions remained the same size, and two lesions gradually grew. Angiography showed the non-growing fusiform aneurysms as a circumferentially or unilaterally fusiform dilatation of a short segment of the vertebral artery with smooth walls and a steep slope of the dilatation, and the growing fusiform aneurysms as unilaterally fusiform involving a long segment of the vertebral artery or basilar artery with irregular walls and a gentle slope of dilatation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the non-growing fusiform aneurysms as a signal-void area, and the growing fusiform aneurysms as high and intermediate signals in addition to the normal flow void. The heterogeneous MR intensities probably correspond to turbulent flow, laminar flow, thrombosis, or intramural hematoma. Differentiation of growing and non-growing fusiform aneurysms is very difficult at the initial diagnosis. However, enlargement of the fusiform aneurysms is consistent with hemorrhage into the aneurysmal wall, which is confirmed by MR imaging. Fusiform aneurysms with the characteristics of the growing aneurysms cannot be overlooked because of the potential to develop into giant fusiform aneurysms which are very difficult to manage therapeutically. (+info)