Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between midline episiotomy and postpartum anal incontinence. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with three study arms and six months of follow up. SETTING: University teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Primiparous women who vaginally delivered a live full term, singleton baby between 1 August 1996 and 8 February 1997: 209 who received an episiotomy; 206 who did not receive an episiotomy but experienced a second, third, or fourth degree spontaneous perineal laceration; and 211 who experienced either no laceration or a first degree perineal laceration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported faecal and flatus incontinence at three and six months postpartum. RESULTS: Women who had episiotomies had a higher risk of faecal incontinence at three (odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 16.2) and six (3.7, 0.9 to 15.6) months postpartum compared with women with an intact perineum. Compared with women with a spontaneous laceration, episiotomy tripled the risk of faecal incontinence at three months (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9) and six months (0.7 to 11.2) postpartum, and doubled the risk of flatus incontinence at three months (1.3 to 3.4) and six months (1.2 to 3.7) postpartum. A non-extending episiotomy (that is, second degree surgical incision) tripled the risk of faecal incontinence (1.1 to 9.0) and nearly doubled the risk of flatus incontinence (1.0 to 3.0) at three months postpartum compared with women who had a second degree spontaneous tear. The effect of episiotomy was independent of maternal age, infant birth weight, duration of second stage of labour, use of obstetric instrumentation during delivery, and complications of labour. CONCLUSIONS: Midline episiotomy is not effective in protecting the perineum and sphincters during childbirth and may impair anal continence. (+info)
Episiotomy repair: Vicryl versus Vicryl rapide.
Women suffer a significant degree of perineal morbidity in the postpartum period. For some, it can be significant and interfere with daily activities. Although there seems to be no doubt that polyglycolic acid derivatives are superior to non absorbable sutures with regard to wound healing, problems still occur with their use. In this study a relatively new product, Vicryl rapide, was compared with Vicryl. (+info)
Differences in perineal lacerations in black and white primiparas.
OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in incidence of perineal and vaginal lacerations in primiparous black and white women. METHODS: We reviewed University of Michigan Hospital delivery records, from July 1996 to December 1998, of black and white women 18 years and older and at least 35 weeks' gestation who had their first vaginal delivery. Birth weight, episiotomy, gestational age, laceration, length of second stage, oxytocin use, epidural use, and operative vaginal delivery were analyzed by univariable and multivariable tests. RESULTS: We analyzed 176 black women (mean age +/- standard deviation 23.7 +/- 4.7 years; range 18-41 years) and 1633 white women (27.8 +/- 5.4 years; 18-49 years; P <.001). Black women were less likely to have second, third, or fourth degree lacerations (43% compared with 59%; P <.001). The mean length of second stage of labor was shorter in the black women (73 +/- 69 minutes; range 3-494 minutes compared with 106 +/- 78 minutes; range 2-642 minutes; P <.001). Infants of black women weighed less (3292 +/- 490 g; 1990-5190 g compared with 3429 +/- 470 g; 1860-4950 g; P <.001). Multivariable analysis showed that black women were twice as likely to deliver with intact perineums than white women (P <.001). CONCLUSION: Black primiparas were less likely to deliver with second-degree or greater lacerations and more likely to deliver with their perineums intact. (+info)
Perineal massage in labour and prevention of perineal trauma: randomised controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of perineal massage in the second stage of labour on perineal outcomes. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: At 36 weeks' gestation, women expecting normal birth of a singleton were asked to join the study. Women became eligible to be randomised in labour if they progressed to full dilatation of the cervix or 8 cm or more if nulliparous or 5 cm or more if multiparous. 1340 were randomised into the trial. INTERVENTION: Massage and stretching of the perineum during the second stage of labour with a water soluble lubricant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PRIMARY OUTCOMES: rates of intact perineum, episiotomies, and first, second, third, and fourth degree tears. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: pain at three and 10 days postpartum and pain, dyspareunia, resumption of sexual intercourse, and urinary and faecal incontinence and urgency three months postpartum. RESULTS: Rates of intact perineums, first and second degree tears, and episiotomies were similar in the massage and the control groups. There were fewer third degree tears in the massage group (12 (1.7%) v 23 (3.6%); absolute risk 2.11, relative risk 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.93, P<0.04), though the trial was underpowered to measure this rarer outcome. Groups did not differ in any of the secondary outcomes at the three assessment points. CONCLUSIONS: The practice of perineal massage in labour does not increase the likelihood of an intact perineum or reduce the risk of pain, dyspareunia, or urinary and faecal problems. (+info)
Ibuprofen versus acetaminophen with codeine for the relief of perineal pain after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Pain from episiotomy or tearing of perineal tissues during childbirth is often poorly treated and may be severe. This randomized double-blind controlled trial was performed to compare the effectiveness, side effects and cost of, and patient preference for, 2 analgesics for the management of postpartum perineal pain. METHODS: A total of 237 women who gave birth vaginally with episiotomy or a third- or fourth-degree tear between August 1995 and November 1996 at a tertiary-level teaching and referral centre for obstetric care in Vancouver were randomly assigned to receive either ibuprofen (400 mg) (n = 127) or acetaminophen (600 mg) with codeine (60 mg) and caffeine (15 mg) (Tylenol No. 3) (n = 110), both given orally every 4 hours as necessary. Pain ratings were recorded before the first dose and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 and 24 hours after the first dose on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Side effects and overall opinion were assessed at 24 hours. RESULTS: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen with codeine had similar analgesic properties in the first 24 hours post partum (mean pain rating 3.4 and 3.3, mean number of doses in 24 hours 3.4 and 3.3, and proportion of treatment failures 13.8% [16/116] and 16.0% [16/100] respectively). Significantly fewer subjects in the ibuprofen group than in the acetaminophen with codeine group experienced side effects (52.4% v. 71.7%) (p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in overall patient satisfaction between the 2 groups. The major determinant of pain intensity was forceps-assisted delivery. Overall, 78% of the treatment failures were in women with forceps-assisted deliveries. INTERPRETATION: Since the 2 analgesics were rated similarly, ibuprofen may be the preferred choice because it is less expensive and requires less nursing time to dispense. Further studies need to address improved analgesia for women with forceps-assisted deliveries. (+info)
Regression models for unconstrained, partially or fully constrained continuation odds ratios.
Epidemiologists frequently encounter studies with ordered responses. Standard ordered response logit models, such as the continuation ratio model, constrain exposure to have a homogeneous effect across thresholds of the ordered response. We demonstrate a method for fitting regression models for unconstrained, partially or fully constrained continuation odds ratios using a 'person-threshold' data set. For each subject, we create a separate record for each response threshold the subject is 'at risk' of passing and then apply standard binary logistic regression to estimate the continuation-ratio model. An example demonstrates the unconstrained, partially and fully constrained continuation-ratio model, while a small simulation study examines some properties of the proposed 'person-threshold' approach. Finally, we present a brief discussion of statistical software to implement the method. (+info)
Anal incontinence after childbirth.
BACKGROUND: Incontinence of stool and flatus are frequent complications of childbirth. We examined the prevalence and possible causes of these adverse outcomes in a large cohort of women. METHODS: We studied 949 pregnant women who gave birth in 5 hospitals in 1995/96 in the province of Quebec. These women, participants in a randomized controlled trial of prenatal perineal massage, completed a self-administered questionnaire 3 months after giving birth. RESULTS: Three months after delivery 29 women (3.1%) reported incontinence of stool, and 242 (25.5%) had involuntary escape of flatus. Incontinence of stool was more frequent among women who delivered vaginally and had third- or fourth-degree perineal tears than among those who delivered vaginally and had no anal sphincter tears (7.8% v. 2.9%). Forceps delivery (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.08) and anal sphincter tears (adjusted RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.40-3.13) were independent risk factors for incontinence of flatus or stool or both. Anal sphincter injury was strongly and independently associated with first vaginal birth (RR 39.2, 95% CI 5.4-282.5), median episiotomy (adjusted RR 9.6, 95% CI 3.2-28.5), forceps delivery (adjusted RR 12.3, 95% CI 3.0-50.4) and vacuum-assisted delivery (adjusted RR 7.4, 95% CI 1.9-28.5) but not with birth weight (adjusted RR for nirth weight 4000 g or more: 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.0) or length of the second stage of labour (adjusted RR for second stage 1.5 hours or longer compared with less than 0.5 hours: 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-2.7). INTERPRETATION: Anal incontinence is associated with forceps delivery and anal sphincter laceration. Anal sphincter laceration is strongly predicted by first vaginal birth, median episiotomy, and forceps or vacuum delivery but not by birth weight or length of the second stage of labour. (+info)
Third degree laceration at delivery; etiological considerations, and a technique for repair.
In a series of 14,080 cases in which either median or mediolateral episiotomy was used to facilitate delivery, third degree extension occurred in 75 cases (0.5 per cent). In related data extension of laceration was observed to occur in an inordinately high proportion of cases in association with use of forceps, greater than normal anterior pelvic depth, delivery of a large baby, primiparity, abnormal position and presentation, use of median incision (although extension also occurred in some cases in which mediolateral episiotomy was done), and hyperflexion and extreme abduction of the thighs. The method of immediate postpartum repair employed was associated with a minimal amount of postpartum discomfort, and late complications were almost nil. (+info)