Coping with refractory epilepsy. (1/230)

We investigated the coping behaviour and its correlation with demographic and illness-related data, depression, locus of control and psychosocial adaptation in 40 patients with intractable epilepsy with primarily or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Three standardized self-reporting questionnaires were applied, which are the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness (FKV), the von Zerssen Depression Scale (D-S), and the IPC-questionnaire measuring generalized locus of control beliefs; the Social Interview Schedule (SIS), a semi-structured interview, was used to measure the psychosocial adaptation. Active, problem-focused and compliance strategies were predominantly used and regarded as most helpful. Hence, the epileptic patients use similar coping patterns reported in patients with other non life-threatening chronic diseases. The level of depression was moderate and in the range of other chronic somatic diseases. The use of coping patterns, which are regarded as maladaptive, was correlated with distinct depression, a small degree of internal locus of control beliefs and poor psychosocial adaption. These results indicate the possibility to improve psychosocial adjustment by supporting effective strategies.  (+info)

Postictal symptoms help distinguish patients with epileptic seizures from those with non-epileptic seizures. (2/230)

The aim of the study was to assess whether post-ictal symptoms can help distinguish patients who have epileptic seizures from those with non-epileptic seizures (NES). We reviewed the spontaneous responses to the question 'What symptoms do you have after a seizure?' in 16 patients with epileptic seizures (predominantly focal with secondary generalization or generalized tonic-clonic) and 23 NES patients. Six of the 16 patients (38%) vs. only one of 23 NES patients (4.3%) noted post-ictal headache (P = 0.008). Nine epilepsy patients (56%) vs. three NES patients (13%) reported post-ictal fatigue (P = 0.004). Confusion or other symptoms did not distinguish epilepsy patients from those with NES. All epilepsy patients had at least one post-ictal symptom while 12 NES patients (52%) had none (P = 0.001). Therefore, patients evaluated for epileptic vs. non-epileptic seizures who have post-ictal fatigue or headache, are more likely to have epileptic seizures. Patients with a diagnosis of NES who note post-ictal fatigue or headache should be investigated further.  (+info)

Acute psychotic symptoms induced by topiramate. (3/230)

The incidence of psychosis during clinical trials of topiramate was 0.8%, not significantly different from the rate for placebo or reported rates of psychosis in patients with refractory epilepsy. We observed psychotic symptoms in five patients soon after initiation of topiramate therapy. We performed a retrospective chart review of the first 80 patients who began on topiramate after approval for clinical use, between January and April 1997. Symptoms suggestive of psychosis, including hallucinations and delusions, were sought for analysis. Cognitive effects such as psychomotor slowing, confusion, and somnolence were not included. Five patients developed definite psychotic symptoms 2 to 46 days after beginning topiramate. Dosages at symptom onset were 50-400 mg/day. Symptoms included paranoid delusions in four patients and auditory hallucinations in three. Symptoms of psychosis and other psychiatric symptoms resolved quickly with discontinuation of topiramate in three patients, dose reduction from 300 to 200 mg/day in one and with inpatient treatment and neuroleptics in another. One patient had a history of auditory hallucinations, one of aggressive and suicidal thoughts, but three had no significant psychiatric history. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of psychotic symptoms, even in patients without a previous psychiatric history, when prescribing topiramate. Symptoms resolve quickly with discontinuation.  (+info)

Encephalopathy complicating high-dose melphalan. (4/230)

High-dose melphalan (HDM) with peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) is a common treatment for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and more recently also with AL amyloidosis (ALA). We report two female patients with severe renal failure who underwent treatment with HDM for MM (patient 1) and ALA (patient 2). Both patients developed severe encephalopathy with generalised tonic-clonic seizures and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 3/15. Causes for coma such as infections, metabolic disturbances, cerebral ischaemia or haemorrhage were excluded. Patient 1 died on day 25 post transplant while comatose. Patient 2 recovered from her comatose state 18 days after transplantation. To our knowledge this is the first report on a possible role of high-dose melphalan in the development of encephalopathy.  (+info)

Fractures due to hypocalcemic convulsion. (5/230)

We report on two cases of patients in whom hypocalcemic seizures during hemodialysis led to right scapular body fracture in one and bilateral femoral neck fractures in the other.  (+info)

Syncope after effort. (6/230)

A 29-year-old man developed recurrent syncope following exertion. Cardiac investigations revealed no evidence of structural heart disease, but during exercise testing, in the recovery phase, he sustained a bradycardia and then asystole for a prolonged period. Before cardiac massage could be instituted a tonic-clonic fit occurred, and this initiated a return to sinus rhythm. His symptoms were abolished following the implantation of a dual-chamber pacemaker.  (+info)

Cocaine-induced seizure thresholds: quantitative trait loci detection and mapping in two populations derived from the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse strains. (7/230)

Seizures are a well known consequence of human cocaine abuse, and in rodent models, sensitivity to cocaine seizures has been shown to be strongly influenced by genotype. For example, several studies have reported significant differences between the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) inbred mouse strains in their sensitivity to cocaine-induced seizures. This prompted our use of the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strain set and an F(2) population derived from the B6 and D2 progenitor strains for further genetic analyses and for gene mapping efforts in this study. Cocaine was infused into the lateral tail vein, and the doses needed to induce a running bouncing clonic seizure and a tonic hindlimb extensor seizure were recorded for each mouse. In the BXD RI set, a genome-wide search was carried out for QTLs (quantitative trait loci), which are sites on a chromosome containing genes that influence seizure susceptibility. An F(2) population (B6D2F2, n = 408) was subsequently used as a second, confirmation step. Based on both RI and F(2) results, three QTLs emerged as significant (P <.00005): one for clonic seizures on chromosome 9 (distal), and two for tonic seizures on chromosomes 14 (proximal to mid) and 15 (distal). Two additional QTLs emerged as suggestive (P <.0015), both associated with clonic seizures on chromosomes 9 (proximal) and 15 (distal). Both QTLs on chromosome 9 were sex-specific, with much larger effects on the phenotype seen in females than in males.  (+info)

Closed head injury resulting in paradoxical improvement of a seizure disorder. (8/230)

People with epilepsy are prone to head injuries and these traumas are usually considered adverse events. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who sustained a closed head injury as a result of a seizure. This accidental trauma resulted in a 1-year remission of her previously intractable complex partial seizures. The paradoxical improvement of a seizure disorder can occur as a result of a closed head injury. We postulate it simulated ablative epilepsy surgery.  (+info)