Prolonged post-ictal confusion as a manifestation of continuous complex partial status epilepticus: a depth EEG study. (1/16)

We report a peculiar depth-EEG recording of prolonged post-ictal confusion which proved to be continuous complex partial status epilepticus. A 33 year old male with intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited this ictal EEG recording. After repetitive habitual complex partial seizures, and an ensuing short lucid interval with intact memory and full communicability, the patient became more and more unresponsive and, finally, even cataleptic. Concurrent with this change in responsiveness, an EEG revealed a gradual and steady increase of ictal EEG activity. Immediately after intravenous diazepam infusion, this ictal EEG activity was suppressed and the patient began to move. This case confirms that a paradoxical excitation can occur after clustered complex partial seizures, instead of the well-known neuronal exhaustion.  (+info)

A case of post-anoxic encephalopathy with initial massive myoclonic status followed by alternating Jacksonian seizures. (2/16)

To contrast stimulus-sensitive generalized myoclonus with ensuing multifocal localized myoclonus in a patient with post-anoxic coma, we stressed the clinical as well as electroencephalographical differences between his initial generalized and subsequent focal myoclonus. While generalized myoclonus was presumably of extracortical origin and responsive to valproic acid, alternating Jacksonian seizures were definitely cortical and suppressed with phenytoin. These two different types of myoclonus should not be confused in post-anoxic coma.  (+info)

Epilepsia partialis continua (Koshevnikov): a preliminary case report. (3/16)

We report on the preliminary clinical and electrophysiological aspects of an in-patient possibly presenting epilepsia partialis continua (Koshevnikov). We discuss the different etiologies and emphasize on the possible idiopathic form in this case.  (+info)

Ictal visual hallucinations and post-ictal hemianopia with anosognosia. (4/16)

We report the case history of an adult who developed seizures with nearly pure visual symptoms due to an occipital vascular lesion. The seizures were characterized by elementary visual hallucinations in the right visual field. Interictally, a dense homonymous hemianopia was demonstrated in the clinical examination and by using perimetry, but was not recognized by the patient himself. The seizures vanished and the visual fields normalized completely after initiation of anticonvulsive treatment.  (+info)

Rolandic encephalopathy and epilepsia partialis continua following bone marrow transplant. (5/16)

Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a condition defined by prolonged focal myoclonus. Often resistant to therapy, EPC in children is frequently present in Rasmussen encephalitis, a form of chronic encephalitis of uncertain etiology. We discuss a child who developed bilateral EPC 5 months after a bone marrow transplant. Neuroimaging studies showed signal abnormalities on both sensory-motor areas. An extensive search failed to reveal the etiology of the disorder, but treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent was associated with resolution of the process. An unidentified infectious agent may be responsible for an encephalitis of the motor strip in immunosuppressed patients.  (+info)

Alteration of the cortical motor map in a patient with intractable focal seizures. (6/16)

Patients with epilepsia partialis continua may develop progressive neurological deficits of unclear origin. It is possible that repetitive epileptic spikes induce plastic changes in the cortex analogous to the changes observed following direct microstimulation. A child is reported with focal cortical dysplasia, intractable focal seizures, worsening hemiparesis, and alteration of the cortical motor map over time. At age 7, he underwent cortical motor mapping before partial resection of a seizure focus within the right postcentral gyrus. No deficits were present after surgery, and seizure frequency declined by more than 90%. Seizures subsequently worsened and a progressive left hemiparesis developed. Cortical remapping at age 12 showed motor centres for left arm, face, and eye movements in an unusual configuration. The location of the motor representation of the face differed from the location obtained at age 7. This case provides direct electrophysiological evidence of reorganisation of the cortical motor map in the human brain.  (+info)

Epilepsia partialis continua in cat scratch disease. (7/16)

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a world-wide, diffuse, non-epidemic infection caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Bartonella henselae. The occurrence of encephalopathy represents an infrequent and atypical complication, whose manifestations include ischemic strokes, transverse myelitis and epileptic seizures. Status epilepticus has been described as the most frequent emergency in CSD encephalopathy. In this report, we describe a case of CSD complicated by an epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) manifested as rhythmic movements of the flexor muscles of the left hand. Although CSD is a benign, self-limited disease and a complete neurological recovery usually occurs, in the present case the EPC resulted in a partial epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and back-averaged EEG data recorded during myoclonic activity document this CSD complication.  (+info)

Chronic isolated hemifacial spasm as a manifestation of epilepsia partialis continua. (8/16)

The objective of this case study was to describe the clinical and electroencephalography (EEG)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of a case of isolated hemifacial spasm due to epilepsia partialis continua in a 59-year-old man with abnormal hemifacial movements that disappeared during voluntary tasks, were absent during sleep, and responded to carbamazepine. His neurological examination was normal; EEG revealed right inferior frontal epileptiform discharges. EEG/fMRI demonstrated increased blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast in the right inferior and middle frontal gyri corresponding to the contralateral motor and premotor cortex responsible for facial movements (BA 44, 45, 45, 9), with widespread BOLD signal deactivations suggestive of epileptic network involvement despite a very focal epileptogenic process. We hypothesize that the response of some cases of hemifacial spasm to carbamazepine, a first-line treatment in the pre-botulinum toxin era, may have been due to its antiepileptic effects, rather than to modulation of facial nerve hyperexcitability.  (+info)