Inhibition by amiloride of sodium-dependent fluid reabsorption in the rat isolated caudal epididymis.
The rate of fluid reabsorption was studied in the rat isolated caudal epididymal sac in vitro. 2 Part of the fluid reabsorption was found to be dependent on intraluminal Na+. Amiloride (0.1 mM) completely inhibited this component of fluid reabsorption. 3 The log dose-inhibition curve to amiloride was sigmoid and the IC50 value was found to be 1.6 muM. (+info)
Morphology of the epididymal region and ductus deferens of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).
The ductal system of the reproductive tract of the male domestic turkey was studied by gross dissection and light microscopy of paraffin and Epon embedded tissues. The succession of ductules as one passes caudally from the testis was as follows: seminiferous tubules; rete testis; ductuli efferentes; connecting ductules; ductus epididymidis; ductus deferens; receptaculum ductus deferentis; papilla ductus deferentis. Non-ciliated cells of the male tract consisted of squamous and low cuboidal cells of the rete testis, granulated columnar cells lining the ductuli efferentes and connective ductules; agranulated columnar cells which formed the epithelium of the ductus epididymidis, ductus deferens, receptaculum and papilla ductus deferentis; and basal cells which were found in increasing number from the ductuli efferentes to the papilla. The basal cells had a reduced amount of cytoplasm and stained more intensely than the other cell types. Ciliated cells were apparent in the ductuli efferentes and connecting ductules, and these consistently stained lighter than the non-ciliated cells. Non-ciliated columnar cells of the ductuli efferentes and connecting ductules contained chromatophilic granules. Cytoplasmic blebbing into the ductal lumina was found associated with these non-ciliated cells as well as the agranular cells of the ductus epididymidis and deferens. Evidence obtained from this study suggests that the non-ciliated cells of the ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens have a contribution to make to the seminal plasma by apocrine secretion. (+info)
Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation.
Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown. (+info)
Localization of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) protein and messenger ribonucleic acid in rat epididymis.
An acidic environment is important for sperm maturation in the epididymis and also helps to maintain mature sperm in an immotile state during storage in this organ. Both an Na+/H+ exchanger and an H+ATPase have been implicated in this process. The H+ATPase is concentrated in specialized apical (and/or narrow) and clear cells of the epididymis, while the Na+/H+ exchanger has not yet been localized in situ. As in other proton-secreting epithelia, bicarbonate transport occurs in the epididymis, where it is implicated in luminal acidification. In this study we used an antibody raised against a fusion protein (maltose-binding protein: MBP-NBC-5) from the C-terminus of the recently cloned rat kidney Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) to localize this protein in the epididymis and vas deferens of the rat. The distribution of the respective mRNA was mapped by in situ hybridization. NBC message was strongly expressed in the initial segment and the intermediate zone of the epididymis, and the NBC-5 antibody gave a strong basolateral staining in both principal cells and apical/narrow cells in this region. Western blotting revealed a single band at about 160 kDa in the epididymis. The intensity of staining as well as mRNA levels decreased in the cauda epididymidis and in the vas deferens, where only weak staining was seen. Basolateral NBC may function in parallel with apical proton secretion to regulate luminal acidification and/or bicarbonate reabsorption in the excurrent duct system. (+info)
Involvement of polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 in the regulation of expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase messenger ribonucleic acid-IV in the rat epididymis.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) mRNA-IV and polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3) mRNA are highly expressed in the initial segment of the rat epididymis, and both are regulated by testicular factors. PEA3 protein in rat initial segment nuclear extracts has been shown to bind to a PEA3/Ets binding motif, which is derived from the partially characterized GGT mRNA-IV promoter region. This suggests that PEA3 may be involved in regulating transcription from the rat GGT mRNA-IV gene promoter in the initial segment. Using DNA oligonucleotide primers and DNA sequencing analysis, an approximately 1500-basepair (bp) DNA sequence at the 5' region of the promoter was obtained. Using transient transfection, PEA3 activated transcription of the rat GGT mRNA-IV promoter only in cultured epididymal cells from the rat initial segment, but not in Cos-1 or NRK-52E cells. Promoter deletion analysis indicated that a PEA3/Ets binding motif between nucleotides -22 and -17 is the functional site for PEA3 to activate transcription of GGT promoter IV and that an adjacent Sp1 binding motif is also required to maintain promoter IV activity in epididymal cells. Transcriptional activation of promoter IV was shown to be epididymal cell-specific and PEA3-specific. In addition, PEA3 may act as a weak repressor for transcription of promoter IV, probably using a PEA3/Ets binding motif(s) distal to the transcription start site. A model of how PEA3 is involved in the regulation of transcription of GGT promoter IV in epididymal cells is proposed. (+info)
An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development.
We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix. (+info)
Identification of Rickettsia rickettsii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by immunofluorescence.
With slight modification of a trypsin digestion technique, Rickettsia rickettsii were demonstrated specifically by immunofluorescence staining in Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from a human, rhesus monkey, and guinea pig with Rocky Mountain spotted fever and in infected membranes from a chicken embryo. Tissues were cut at 4 micron and, using geltain as a tissue adhesive, were hydrated in a routine manner. Sections were then digested in refrigerated 0.1% trypsin for 16 h, washed, and stained specifically for R. rickettsii by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Rickettsial organisms were localized in affected vessels of the mammalian species and within the yolk sac epithelium of the chicken embryo. Specificity was confirmed by adsorbing antibody conjugates with R. rickettsii organisms. Trypsin digestion probably decreased tissue proteins which interfered with immunochemical attachment of antibody to the rickettsiae. The technique is valuable in that a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be confirmed from Formalin-fixed tissues processed in a routine manner. (+info)
Reversing adipocyte differentiation: implications for treatment of obesity.
Conventional treatment of obesity reduces fat in mature adipocytes but leaves them with lipogenic enzymes capable of rapid resynthesis of fat, a likely factor in treatment failure. Adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia in normal rats results in rapid nonketotic fat loss that persists after hyperleptinemia disappears, whereas pair-fed controls regain their weight in 2 weeks. We report here that the hyperleptinemia depletes adipocyte fat while profoundly down-regulating lipogenic enzymes and their transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in epididymal fat; enzymes of fatty acid oxidation and their transcription factor, PPARalpha, normally low in adipocytes, are up-regulated, as are uncoupling proteins 1 and 2. This transformation of adipocytes from cells that store triglycerides to fatty acid-oxidizing cells is accompanied by loss of the adipocyte markers, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and leptin, and by the appearance of the preadipocyte marker Pref-1. These findings suggest a strategy for the treatment of obesity by alteration of the adipocyte phenotype. (+info)