Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water.
Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction. (+info)
Sequence analysis of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 isolate: relationships with other picornaviruses.
The majority of the genomic sequence of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 (PEV-1) isolate was determined. The genome was found to contain a large open reading frame which encoded a leader protein prior to the capsid protein region. This showed no sequence identity to other picornavirus leader regions and the sequence data suggested that it does not possess proteolytic activity. The 2A protease was small and showed considerable sequence identity to the aphthoviruses and to equine rhinovirus serotype 2. The 2A/2B junction possessed the typical cleavage site (NPG/P) exhibited by these viruses. The other proteins shared less than 40% sequence identity with equivalent proteins from other picornavirus genera. Phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and 3D sequences indicated that this virus forms a distinct branch of the family Picornaviridae. On the basis of results presented in this paper PEV-1 has been assigned to a new picornavirus genus. The phylogeny of the virus in relation to other picornaviruses is discussed. (+info)
Porcine teschoviruses comprise at least eleven distinct serotypes: molecular and evolutionary aspects.
Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 10 recognized prototype strains of the porcine enterovirus (PEV) cytopathic effect (CPE) group I reveals a close relationship of the viral genomes to the previously sequenced strain F65, supporting the concept of a reclassification of this virus group into a new picornavirus genus. Also, nucleotide sequences of the polyprotein-encoding genome region or the P1 region of 28 historic strains and recent field isolates were determined. The data suggest that several closely related but antigenically and molecular distinct serotypes constitute one species within the proposed genus Teschovirus. Based on sequence data and serological data, we propose a new serotype with strain Dresden as prototype. This hitherto unrecognized serotype is closely related to porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1, former PEV-1), but induces type-specific neutralizing antibodies. Sequencing of field isolates collected from animals presenting with neurological disorders prove that other serotypes than PTV-1 may also cause polioencephalomyelitis of swine. (+info)
Genetic reclassification of porcine enteroviruses.
The genetic diversity of porcine teschoviruses (PTVs; previously named porcine enterovirus 1) and most serotypes of porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) was studied. Following the determination of the major portion of the genomic sequence of PTV reference strain Talfan, the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region, the capsid VP2 region and the 3' non-translated region (3'-NTR) were compared among PTVs and PEVs and with other picornaviruses. The sequences were obtained by RT-PCR and 3'-RACE with primers based on the sequences of Talfan and available PEV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of RdRp/VP2 and analysis of the predicted RNA secondary structure of the 3'-NTR indicated that PEVs should be reclassified genetically into at least three groups, one that should be assigned to PTVs and two PEV subspecies represented by strain PEV-8 V13 and strain PEV-9 UKG410/73. (+info)
Persistent infection is a rare sequel following infection of pigs with swine vesicular disease virus.
Nine isolates from pigs persistently infected with a recent Italian isolate of swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, ITL/9/93, were collected sequentially over 121 days and were characterized antigenically and biochemically. There was an accumulation of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the capsid proteins throughout the carrier state that could be correlated with alterations in antigenicity in virus isolates collected late stage in infection. The aa substitutions detected mainly occurred in VPI and antigenic changes were detected in late isolates both at antigenic site 1, resulting in loss of binding of Mab 4GO7, and at a closely located site which has not yet been named, recognized by Mab C29. In further experiments groups of pigs were exposed to a range of SVD viruses, but no virus was isolated beyond 16 days post infection (dpi) nor viral RNA detected beyond 42 dpi. Attempts to transfer infection to sentinel pigs introduced some time after initial infection of the original pigs were largely unsuccessful. The carrier state was established in only one out of five experimental infections of pigs with SVD virus and can therefore be considered a rare sequel toinfection with SVD virus and is of limited significance in the epidemiology of the disease. (+info)
Detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase- and nitrotyrosine-positive cells in the lesions of pericarditis induced by porcine enterovirus serotype 3 infection.
The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme that produces nitric oxide, was examined in the hearts of pigs infected with porcine enterovirus serotype 3 (PEV3). Piglets orally infected with PEV3 developed tremors and paralysis 3-7 days post-infection. Affected animals had pericarditis and myocarditis. There were fibrin and inflammatory cell infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) in the pericardial sac and myocardium. Immunohistochemically, the majority of inflammatory cells in the pericardial sac were positive for iNOS and nitrotyrosine, an end product of nitric oxide. These results suggest that iNOS is upregulated in the pericardial lesion, and that increased nitric oxide production plays an important role in the development of PEV3-induced pericarditis and myocarditis. (+info)
Sequencing of porcine enterovirus groups II and III reveals unique features of both virus groups.
The molecular classification of the porcine enterovirus (PEV) groups II and III was investigated. The sequence of the almost complete PEV-8 (group II) genome reveals that this virus has unique L and 2A gene regions. A reclassification of this group into a new picornavirus genus is suggested. PEV group III viruses are typical enteroviruses. They differ from other enteroviruses by a prolonged stem-loop D of the 5'-cloverleaf structure. (+info)
Detection of porcine teschovirus and enterovirus type II by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) have been recognized as the causative agents of various clinical manifestations such as fertility disorders, neurological defects, and dermal lesions in pigs. Currently, the diagnosis of PEV infection is carried out by virus isolation, which although useful, is labor- and time-intensive. The present investigation describes the development of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of PEVs of cytopathic effect groups I (now known as porcine teschoviruses [PTVs]) and II. The assay described not only detects the PTVs and CPE group II of PEVs but also allows them to be differentiated on the basis of the size of the amplification product, using the same set of oligonucleotide primers. The availability of specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic tools such as the RT-PCR assay described herein should facilitate efficient diagnosis of PTV and CPE group II infections in pigs. (+info)