(1/246) Molecular phylogeny and proposed classification of the simian picornaviruses.

The simian picornaviruses were isolated from various primate tissues during the development of general tissue culture methods in the 1950s to 1970s or from specimens derived from primates used in biomedical research. Twenty simian picornavirus serotypes are recognized, and all are presently classified within the Enterovirus genus. To determine the phylogenetic relationships among all of the simian picornaviruses and to evaluate their classification, we have determined complete VP1 sequences for 19 of the 20 serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that A13, SV19, SV26, SV35, SV43, and SV46 are members of human enterovirus species A, a group that contains enterovirus 71 and 11 of the coxsackie A viruses. SA5 is a member of human enterovirus species B, which contains the echoviruses, coxsackie B viruses, coxsackievirus A9, and enterovirus 69. SV6, N125, and N203 are related to one another and, more distantly, to species A human enteroviruses, but could not be definitely assigned to a species. SV4 and SV28 are closely related to one another and to A-2 plaque virus, but distinct from other enteroviruses, suggesting that these simian viruses are members of a new enterovirus species. SV2, SV16, SV18, SV42, SV44, SV45, and SV49 are related to one another but distinct from viruses in all other picornavirus genera, suggesting that they may comprise a previously unknown genus in Picornaviridae. Several simian virus VP1 sequences (N125 and N203; SV4 and SV28; SV19, SV26, and SV35; SV18 and SV44; SV16, SV42, and SV45) are greater than 75% identical to one another (and/or greater than 85% amino acid identity), suggesting that the true number of distinct serotypes among the viruses surveyed is less than 20.  (+info)

(2/246) Diagnosis of group A coxsackieviral infection using polymerase chain reaction.

AIMS: To examine the relation between enteroviral infection, especially group A coxsackieviral infection, and acute febrile illness over two summers using tissue culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from 246 children from June to August 1997 and 1998. RESULTS: Enteroviruses were isolated from 33/246 samples and 35 other viruses were isolated. Enteroviral genomes were detected in 54/178 samples from which no virus was isolated. Of 41 enteroviral genotypes identified by sequence analysis of PCR products, 38 were group A coxsackieviruses, which are usually difficult to isolate using tissue culture. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that viral detection and identification based on PCR is useful in the diagnosis of group A coxsackieviral infection.  (+info)

(3/246) Systemic therapy of malignant human melanoma tumors by a common cold-producing enterovirus, coxsackievirus a21.

PURPOSE: The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase worldwide; however, treatment of metastatic melanoma remains unsatisfactory, and there is an urgent need for development of effective targeted therapeutics. A potential biological target on the surface of malignant melanoma cells is the up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), relative to surrounding benign tissue. Coxsackievirus A21 (a common cold virus) targets and destroys susceptible cells via specific viral capsid interactions with surface-expressed virus receptors comprising ICAM-1 and DAF. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The oncolytic capacity of a genetically unmodified wild-type common cold-producing human enterovirus (Coxsackievirus A21, CAV21) was assessed against in vitro cultures and in vivo xenografts of malignant human melanoma cells. RESULTS: In vitro studies established that human melanoma cells endogenously express elevated levels of ICAM-1/DAF and were highly susceptible to rapid viral oncolysis by CAV21 infection, whereas ICAM-1/DAF-expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes were refractile to infection. In vivo studies revealed that the tumor burden of nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing multiple s.c. melanoma xenografts was rapidly reduced by oncolysis mediated by a single administration of CAV21. The antitumor activity of CAV21 was characterized by highly efficient systemic spread of progeny CAV21, with oncolysis of tumors also occurring at sites distant to the primary site of viral administration. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings presented herein demonstrate an important proof of principle using administration of replication-competent CAV21 as a potential biological oncolytic agent in the control of human metastatic melanoma.  (+info)

(4/246) Complete genome sequences of all members of the species Human enterovirus A.

The species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) in the family Picornaviridae consists of coxsackieviruses (CV) A2-A8, A10, A12, A14 and A16 and enterovirus 71. Complete genome sequences for the prototype strains of the 10 serotypes whose sequences were not represented in public databases have been determined and analysed in conjunction with previously available complete sequences in GenBank. Members of HEV-A are monophyletic relative to all other human enterovirus species in all regions of the genome except in the 5' non-translated region (NTR), where they are known to cluster with members of HEV-B. The HEV-A prototype strains were about 66 to 86 % identical to one another in deduced capsid amino acid sequence. Antigenic cross-reactivity has been reported between CVA3-Olson and CVA8-Donovan, between CVA5-Swartz and CVA12-Texas-12 and between CVA16-G-10 and EV71-BrCr. Similarity plots, individual sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate a high degree of capsid sequence similarity within each of these three pairs of prototype strains, providing a molecular basis for the observed antigenic relationships. In several cases, phylogenies constructed from the structural (P1) and non-structural regions of the genome (P2 and P3) are incongruent. The incongruent phylogenies and the similarity plot analyses imply that recombination has played a role in the evolution of the HEV-A prototype strains. CVA6-Gdula clearly contains sequences that are also present in CVA10-Kowalik and CVA12-Texas-12, suggesting that these three strains have a shared evolutionary history despite their lack of similarity in the capsid region.  (+info)

(5/246) Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species Human enterovirus A.

Molecular methods have enabled the rapid identification of new enterovirus (EV) serotypes that would have been untypable using existing neutralizing antisera. Nineteen strains of four new EV types termed EV76 (11 isolates), EV89 (two isolates), EV90 (four isolates) and EV91 (two isolates), isolated from clinical specimens from patients in France (one isolate) and Bangladesh (18 isolates), are described. Nucleotide sequences encoding the VP1 capsid protein (882-888 nt) are less than 65 % identical to the homologous sequences of the recognized human EV serotypes, but within each group the sequences are more than 78 % identical. The deduced amino acid sequences of the complete capsid (P1) region are more than 94 % identical within type but less than 76 % identical to those of the recognized serotypes. For both VP1 and P1, the 19 isolates are monophyletic by type with respect to all other EV serotypes. Using the proposed molecular typing scheme, these data support their identification as four new types within the species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A). In almost all cases, the VP1 sequences were more similar to those of some simian EVs than to the human EVs. Partial 3D sequences of all 19 isolates also clustered within HEV-A; they were monophyletic as a group, but not by type, suggesting that recombination has occurred among viruses of these four types. Partial 3D sequences were more closely related to those of simian EVs than to human viruses in HEV-A. These results suggest that the four new types may represent a new subgroup within HEV-A, in addition to the existing human and simian subgroups.  (+info)

(6/246) RNA interference against enterovirus 71 infection.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) which could lead to severe neurological complications. There is currently no effective therapy against EV71. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) is employed as a therapeutic approach for specific viral inhibition. Various regions of the EV71 genome were targeted for inhibition by chemically synthesized siRNAs. Transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells with siRNA targeting the 3'UTR, 2C, 3C, or 3D region significantly alleviated cytopathic effects of EV71. The inhibitory effect was dosage-dependent with a corresponding decrease in viral RNA, viral proteins, and plaque formations by EV71. Viral inhibition of siRNA transfected RD cells was still evident after 48 h. In addition, no significant adverse off-target silencing effects were observed. These results demonstrated the potential and feasibility for the use of siRNA as an antiviral therapy for EV71 infections.  (+info)

(7/246) Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection.

BACKGROUND: At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had >= 85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. RESULTS: Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain. CONCLUSION: The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection.  (+info)

(8/246) Phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes.

BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Several new EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. The mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown. RESULTS: Six EV-71 isolates from an outbreak in Malaysia, in 1997, were sequenced completely. These isolates were identified as EV-71 subgenotypes, B3, B4 and C2. A phylogenetic tree that correlated well with the present enterovirus classification scheme was established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A). Using the 5' UTR, P2 and P3 genomic regions, however, isolates of EV-71 subgenotypes B3 and C4 segregated away from other EV-71 subgenotypes into a cluster together with coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16/G10) and EV-71 subgenotype C2 clustered with CV-A8. Results from the similarity plot analyses supported the clustering of these isolates with other HEV-A. In contrast, at the same genomic regions, a CV-A16 isolate, Tainan5079, clustered with EV-71. This suggests that amongst EV-71 and CV-A16, only the structural genes were conserved. The 3' end of the virus genome varied and consisted of sequences highly similar to various HEV-A viruses. Numerous recombination crossover breakpoints were identified within the non-structural genes of some of these newer EV-71 subgenotypes. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic evidence obtained from analyses of the full genome sequence supports the possible occurrence of inter-typic recombination involving EV-71 and various HEV-A, including CV-A16, the most common causal agent of HFMD. It is suggested that these recombination events played important roles in the emergence of the various EV-71 subgenotypes.  (+info)