(1/205) Salmonella typhimurium encodes a putative iron transport system within the centisome 63 pathogenicity island.
Upon entry into the host, Salmonella enterica strains are presumed to encounter an iron-restricted environment. Consequently, these bacteria have evolved a variety of often-redundant high-affinity acquisition systems to obtain iron in this restricted environment. We have identified an iron transport system that is encoded within the centisome 63 pathogenicity island of Salmonella typhimurium. The nucleotide composition of this locus is significantly different from that of the rest of this pathogenicity island, suggesting a different ancestry and a mosaic structure for this region of the S. typhimurium chromosome. This locus, designated sit, consists of four open reading frames which encode polypeptides with extensive homology to the yfe ABC iron transport system of Yersinia pestis, as well as other ABC transporters. The sitA gene encodes a putative periplasmic binding protein, sitB encodes an ATP-binding protein, and sitC and sitD encode two putative permeases (integral membrane proteins). This operon is capable of complementing the growth defect of the enterobactin-deficient Escherichia coli strain SAB11 in iron-restricted minimal medium. Transcription of the sit operon is repressed under iron-rich growth conditions in a fur-dependent manner. Introduction of a sitBCD deletion into wild-type S. typhimurium resulted in no apparent growth defect in either nutrient-rich or minimal medium and no measurable virulence phenotype. These results further support the existence of redundant iron uptake systems in S. enterica. (+info)
(2/205) Ferric enterobactin binding and utilization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
FetA, formerly designated FrpB, an iron-regulated, 76-kDa neisserial outer membrane protein, shows sequence homology to the TonB-dependent family of receptors that transport iron into gram-negative bacteria. Although FetA is commonly expressed by most neisserial strains and is a potential vaccine candidate for both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, its function in cell physiology was previously undefined. We now report that FetA functions as an enterobactin receptor. N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 utilized ferric enterobactin as the sole iron source when supplied with ferric enterobactin at approximately 10 microM, but growth stimulation was abolished when an omega (Omega) cassette was inserted within fetA or when tonB was insertionally interrupted. FA1090 FetA specifically bound 59Fe-enterobactin, with a Kd of approximately 5 microM. Monoclonal antibodies raised against the Escherichia coli enterobactin receptor, FepA, recognized FetA in Western blots, and amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that residues previously implicated in ferric enterobactin binding by FepA were partially conserved in FetA. An open reading frame downstream of fetA, designated fetB, predicted a protein with sequence similarity to the family of periplasmic binding proteins necessary for transporting siderophores through the periplasmic space of gram-negative bacteria. An Omega insertion within fetB abolished ferric enterobactin utilization without causing a loss of ferric enterobactin binding. These data show that FetA is a functional homolog of FepA that binds ferric enterobactin and may be part of a system responsible for transporting the siderophore into the cell. (+info)
(3/205) Salmonella typhimurium IroN and FepA proteins mediate uptake of enterobactin but differ in their specificity for other siderophores.
Salmonella typhimurium possesses two outer membrane receptor proteins, IroN and FepA, which have been implicated in the uptake of enterobactin. To determine whether both receptors have identical substrate specificities, fepA and iroN mutants and a double mutant were characterized. While both receptors transported enterobactin, the uptake of corynebactin and myxochelin C was selectively mediated by IroN and FepA, respectively. (+info)
(4/205) Assembly line enzymology by multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases: the thioesterase domain of E. coli EntF catalyzes both elongation and cyclolactonization.
BACKGROUND: EntF is a 142 kDa four domain (condensation-adenylation-peptidyl carrier protein-thioesterase) nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzyme that assembles the Escherichia coli N-acyl-serine trilactone siderophore enterobactin from serine, dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) and ATP with three other enzymes (EntB, EntD and EntE). To assess how EntF forms three ester linkages and cyclotrimerizes the covalent acyl enzyme DHB-Ser-S-PCP (peptidyl carrier protein) intermediate, we mutated residues of the proposed catalytic Ser-His-Asp triad of the thioesterase (TE) domain. RESULTS: The Ser1138-->Cys mutant (kcat decreased 1000-fold compared with wild-type EntF) releases both enterobactin (75%) and linear (DHB-Ser)2 dimer (25%) as products. The His 1271-->Ala mutant (kcat decreased 10,000-fold compared with wild-type EntF) releases only enterobactin, but accumulates both DHB-Ser-O-TE and (DHB-Ser)2-O-TE acyl enzyme intermediates. Electrospray ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry of proteolytic digests were used to analyze the intermediates. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish that the TE domain of EntF is both a cyclotrimerizing lactone synthetase and an elongation catalyst for ester-bond formation between covalently tethered DHB-Ser moieties, a new function for chain-termination TE domains found at the carboxyl termini of multimodular NRPSs and polyketide synthases. (+info)
(5/205) Ferric enterochelin transport in Yersinia enterocolitica: molecular and evolutionary aspects.
Yersinia enterocolitica is well equipped for siderophore piracy, encompassing the utilization of siderophores such as ferrioxamine, ferrichrome, and ferrienterochelin. In this study, we report on the molecular and functional characterization of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster orthologous to the Escherichia coli ferrienterochelin transport genes (fepA, fepDGC, and fepB) and the esterase gene fes. In vitro transcription-translation analysis identified polypeptides of 30 and 35 kDa encoded by fepC and fes, respectively. A frameshift mutation within the fepA gene led to expression of a truncated polypeptide of 40 kDa. The fepD, fepG, and fes genes of Y. enterocolitica were shown to complement corresponding E. coli mutants. Insertional mutagenesis of fepD or fes genes abrogates enterochelin-supported growth of Y. enterocolitica on iron-chelated media. In contrast to E. coli, the fep-fes gene cluster in Y. enterocolitica consists solely of genes required for uptake and utilization of enterochelin (fep) and not of enterochelin synthesis genes such as entF. By Southern hybridization, fepDGC and fes sequences could be detected in Y. enterocolitica biotypes IB, IA, and II but not in biotype IV strains, Yersinia pestis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains. According to sequence alignment data and the coherent structure of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster, we suggest early genetic divergence of ferrienterochelin uptake determinants among species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (+info)
(6/205) Disruption of tonB in Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis prevents utilization of ferric siderophores, haemin and haemoglobin as iron sources.
The Bordetella bronchiseptica tonB gene was cloned by detection of a chromosomal restriction fragment hybridizing with each of two degenerate oligonucleotides that corresponded to Pro-Glu and Pro-Lys repeats characteristic of known TonB proteins. The tonB(Bb) gene was situated upstream of exbB and exbD homologues and downstream of a putative Fur-regulated promoter. Hybridization results indicated that the tonB operon and flanking regions were highly conserved between B. bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. Disruption of tonB in B. bronchiseptica resulted in inability to grow in iron-limiting media, and inability to utilize alcaligin, enterobactin, ferrichrome, desferroxamine B, haemin and haemoglobin. Although it was not possible to inactivate tonB in a clinical B. pertussis isolate, tonB was disrupted in a laboratory B. pertussis strain previously selected for the ability to grow on Luria-Bertani medium. This B. pertussis tonB mutant shared a similar iron complex utilization deficient phenotype with the B. bronchiseptica tonB mutant. The B. bronchiseptica tonB operon present on a plasmid did not complement an Escherichia coli tonB mutant, but inefficient reconstitution of enterobactin utilization was observed in one fepA mutant harbouring plasmid copies of the B. pertussis fepA homologue and tonB(Bb) operon. (+info)
(7/205) A multifunctional ATP-binding cassette transporter system from Vibrio cholerae transports vibriobactin and enterobactin.
Vibrio cholerae uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin for iron transport under iron-limiting conditions. We have identified genes for vibriobactin transport and mapped them within the vibriobactin biosynthetic gene cluster. Within this genetic region we have identified four genes, viuP, viuD, viuG and viuC, whose protein products have homology to the periplasmic binding protein, the two integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins, and the ATPase component, respectively, of other iron transport systems. The amino-terminal region of ViuP has homology to a lipoprotein signal sequence, and ViuP could be labeled with [(3)H]palmitic acid. This suggests that ViuP is a membrane lipoprotein. The ViuPDGC system transports both vibriobactin and enterobactin in Escherichia coli. In the same assay, the E. coli enterobactin transport system, FepBDGC, allowed the utilization of enterobactin but not vibriobactin. Although the entire viuPDGC system could complement mutations in fepB, fepD, fepG, or fepC, only viuC was able to independently complement the corresponding fep mutation. This indicates that these proteins usually function as a complex. V. cholerae strains carrying a mutation in viuP or in viuG were constructed by marker exchange. These mutations reduced, but did not completely eliminate, vibriobactin utilization. This suggests that V. cholerae contains genes in addition to viuPDGC that function in the transport of catechol siderophores. (+info)
(8/205) Expression of putative virulence factors by clinical isolates of Klebsiella planticola.
A total of 92 clinical isolates of Klebsiella planticola from man was examined with respect to the production of haemagglutinins and siderophores, serum resistance and distribution of capsular types. For comparison, a group of 207 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae was also studied. The percentages of K. planticola strains able to express mannose-sensitive haemagglutination, indicating type 1 fimbriae (83%) and mannose-resistant and Klebsiella-like agglutination, indicating type 3 fimbriae (69%), as well as to produce the siderophores enterobactin (100%) and aerobactin (2.2%) were almost identical to those of the K. pneumoniae strains. Similarly, the proportion of serum-resistant strains (30%) was comparable to that of K. pneumoniae (25%). The capsule types most often detected in K. planticola were K14 (13%), K2 (9%) and K70 (9%). The incidence of K2, which is the predominant capsular type in K. pneumoniae, was similar in both species. These findings show that K. planticola, which is being detected with increasing frequency in clinical specimens from man, has the ability to express similar putative virulence factors to K. pneumoniae, suggesting that they may have similar pathogenicity. (+info)