(1/753) Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints.
Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach. (+info)
(2/753) Use of microdilution panels with and without beta-lactamase inhibitors as a phenotypic test for beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens.
Over the past decade, a number of new beta-lactamases have appeared in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that, unlike their predecessors, do not confer beta-lactam resistance that is readily detected in routine antibiotic susceptibility tests. Because optimal methodologies are needed to detect these important new beta-lactamases, a study was designed to evaluate the ability of a panel of various beta-lactam antibiotics tested alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors to discriminate between the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases, high levels of K1 beta-lactamase, and other beta-lactamases in 141 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens possessing well-characterized beta-lactamases. The microdilution panels studied contained aztreonam, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, with and without 1, 2, and 4 microg of clavulanate per ml or 8 microg of sulbactam per ml and cefoxitin and cefotetan with and without 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. The results indicated that a minimum panel of five tests would provide maximum separation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase high AmpC, high K1, and other beta-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae. These included cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and ceftriaxone plus 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. Ceftriaxone plus 2 microg of clavulanate per ml could be substituted for cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml without altering the accuracy of the tests. This study indicated that tests with key beta-lactam drugs, alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, could provide a convenient approach to the detection of a variety of beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (+info)
(3/753) Efficacy of beta-lactam and inhibitor combinations in a diffusion chamber model in rabbits.
Using a diffusion chamber in rabbits, we evaluated therapy with the combination of ceftriaxone plus the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam in comparison with ceftriaxone alone. One sensitive and one resistant strain of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae were inoculated into one of the six diffusion chambers, implanted in the same animal. In order to simulate pharmacokinetics in humans, both substances were administered in decreasing doses. Ceftriaxone was given 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after infection in dosages of 45, 35, 25 and 15 mg/kg of body weight, while tazobactam was administered either in one dose at 0 h, or divided into two doses at 0 and 1 h or 0 and 4 h, or divided into three doses at 0, 1 and 4 h after infection. The ratio of ceftriaxone:tazobactam was fixed at 8:1. Ceftriaxone, in combination with tazobactam, given in one dose immediately after infection showed a significant reduction in bacterial count. All other combinations of ceftriaxone and tazobactam did not differ from ceftriaxone in monotherapy. Co-administration of the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam significantly enhanced the activity of ceftriaxone against all three tested species. (+info)
(4/753) Phenotypic and genotypic typing of food and clinical isolates of Enterobacter sakazakii.
Enterobacter sakazakii, designated a unique species in 1980, has been implicated as the causative organism in a rare but severe form of neonatal meningitis. Dried infant formula milk has been identified as a potential source of the organism. E. sakazakii isolates from dried infant formula available in Canada and clinical isolates obtained from Canadian hospital culture collections were characterised by phenotypic (biotype and antibiograms) and genotypic (ribotyping, random amplification of polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) methods. Three biotypes and four antibiogram patterns were observed in the 18 isolates examined. Ribotyping with the Dupont Riboprinter microbial identification system divided the 18 isolates into 10 ribotypes. Three isolates from the same hospital had indistinguishable ribotyping patterns although each was isolated in a different year, as did three food isolates from one company. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles indicated minor differences between the isolates that were indistinguishable by ribotyping. PFGE (with the restriction endonucleases Xba1 and Spe1) and RAPD gave discrete patterns that enabled easy comparison of E. sakazakii isolates, with a high degree of discrimination. The discriminatory index showed RAPD and PFGE were shown to be the most discriminatory typing schemes for E. sakazakii, followed by ribotyping, biotyping and antibiograms. (+info)
(5/753) Most Enterobacter aerogenes strains in France belong to a prevalent clone.
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution in France of the Enterobacter aerogenes prevalent clone isolated in the hospitals of the Marseille area (A. Davin-Regli, D. Monnet, P. Saux, C. Bosi, R. Charrel, A. Barthelemy, and C. Bollet, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1474-1480, 1996). A total of 123 E. aerogenes isolates were collected from 23 hospital laboratories and analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Molecular typing revealed that 21 of the 23 laboratories had isolated this prevalent clone harboring the plasmid encoding for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of the TEM-24 type. Most isolates were susceptible only to imipenem and gentamicin. Their dissemination seems to be clonal and was probably the result of the general use of broad-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones. Four isolates showed an alteration of their outer membrane proteins, causing decrease of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and imipenem and leading to the critical situation of having no alternative therapeutic. The large dissemination of the E. aerogenes prevalent clone probably results from its good adaptation to the antibiotics administered in France and the hospital environment, particularly in intensive care units. (+info)
(6/753) Purification, characterization and gene analysis of N-acetylglucosaminidase from Enterobacter sp. G-1.
Enterobacter sp. G-1 is a bacterium isolated previously as a chitinase-producing bacterium. We found this bacterium also produced N-acetylglucosaminidase and characterized that in this study. Extracellular N-acetylglucosaminidase of 92.0 kDa was purified near homogeneity by 8.57-fold from Enterobacter sp. G-1. The optimum temperature and the optimum pH of the purified N-acetylglucosaminidase was 45 degrees C and 6.0, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 23 residues of N-acetylglucosaminidase was identified. Based on the N-terminal sequence, we amplified pieces of the DNA fragments by PCR. Using these PCR products as probes, we screened the genomic library and successfully isolated the entire N-acetylglucosaminidase gene (designated nag1) from Enterobacter sp. G-1. The nucleotide sequence of the nag1 gene was found to consist of 2,655 bp encoding a protein of 885 amino acid residues. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence from the nag1 gene found 97.3% identity with chitobiase from Serratia marcescens, 54.4% identity with N,N'-diacetylchitobiase from Vibrio harveyi, and 42.7% identity with N-acetylglucosaminidase (ExoI) from Vibrio furnissii. Enzymatic activity assay of N-acetylglucosaminidase indicated stronger activity toward PNP-GlcNAc than PNP-(GlcNAc)2 or PNP-(GlcNAc)3. (+info)
(7/753) Stereochemistry of decarboxylation of trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid by Aerobacter.
The stereochemistry of the decarboxylation of trans-p-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxystyrene by Aerobacter aerogenes has been examined. The decarboxylation has been found to proceed with retention of the geometry about the trans-substituted double-bond. (+info)
(8/753) Isolation of Pantoea agglomerans in two cases of septic monoarthritis after plant thorn and wood sliver injuries.
Arthritis after plant injury is often apparently aseptic. We report two cases due to Pantoea agglomerans. In one case, the bacterium was isolated only from the pediatric blood culture media, BACTEC Peds Plus, monitored in BACTEC 9240, and not from the other media inoculated with the joint fluid. This procedure could help improve the diagnosis of septic arthritis. (+info)