Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC.
The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi. (+info)
Absence of spontaneous peroxisome proliferation in enoyl-CoA Hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mouse liver. Further support for the role of fatty acyl CoA oxidase in PPARalpha ligand metabolism.
Peroxisomes contain a classical L-hydroxy-specific peroxisome proliferator-inducible beta-oxidation system and also a second noninducible D-hydroxy-specific beta-oxidation system. We previously generated mice lacking fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), the first enzyme of the L-hydroxy-specific classical beta-oxidation system; these AOX-/- mice exhibited sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), resulting in profound spontaneous peroxisome proliferation in liver cells. These observations implied that AOX is responsible for the metabolic degradation of PPARalpha ligands. In this study, the function of enoyl-CoA hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (L-PBE), the second enzyme of this peroxisomal beta-oxidation system, was investigated by disrupting its gene. Mutant mice (L-PBE-/-) were viable and fertile and exhibited no detectable gross phenotypic defects. L-PBE-/- mice showed no hepatic steatosis and manifested no spontaneous peroxisome proliferation, unlike that encountered in livers of mice deficient in AOX. These results indicate that disruption of classical peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation system distal to AOX step does not interfere with the inactivation of endogenous ligands of PPARalpha, further confirming that the AOX gene is indispensable for the physiological regulation of this receptor. The absence of appreciable changes in lipid metabolism also indicates that enoyl-CoAs, generated in the classical system in L-PBE-/- mice are diverted to D-hydroxy-specific system for metabolism by D-PBE. When challenged with a peroxisome proliferator, L-PBE-/- mice showed increases in the levels of hepatic mRNAs and proteins that are regulated by PPARalpha except for appreciable blunting of peroxisome proliferative response as compared with that observed in hepatocytes of wild type mice similarly treated. This blunting of peroxisome proliferative response is attributed to the absence of L-PBE protein in L-PBE-/- mouse liver, because all other proteins are induced essentially to the same extent in both wild type and L-PBE-/- mice. (+info)
Unique multifunctional HSD17B4 gene product: 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 and D-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/hydratase involved in Zellweger syndrome.
Six types of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyzing the conversion of estrogens and androgens at position C17 have been identified so far. The peroxisomal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17beta-HSD 4, gene name HSD17B4) catalyzes the oxidation of estradiol with high preference over the reduction of estrone. The highest levels of 17beta-HSD 4 mRNA transcription and specific activity are found in liver and kidney followed by ovary and testes. A 3 kb mRNA codes for an 80 kDa (737 amino acids) protein featuring domains which are not present in the other 17beta-HSDs. The N-terminal domain of 17beta-HSD 4 reveals only 25% amino acid similarity with the other types of 17beta-HSDs. The 80 kDa protein is N-terminally cleaved to a 32 kDa enzymatically active fragment. Both the 80 kDa and the N-terminal 32 kDa (amino acids 1-323) protein are able to perform the dehydrogenase reaction not only with steroids at the C17 position but also with D-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The enzyme is not active with L-stereoisomers. The central part of the 80 kDa protein (amino acids 324-596) catalyzes the 2-enoyl-acyl-CoA hydratase reaction with high efficiency. The C-terminal part of the 80 kDa protein (amino acids 597-737) facilitates the transfer of 7-dehydrocholesterol and phosphatidylcholine between membranes in vitro. The HSD17B4 gene is stimulated by progesterone, and ligands of PPARalpha (peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor alpha) such as clofibrate, and is down-regulated by phorbol esters. Mutations in the HSD17B4 lead to a fatal form of Zellweger syndrome. (+info)
Enoyl-CoA hydratase deficiency: identification of a new type of D-bifunctional protein deficiency.
D-bifunctional protein is involved in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and bile acid intermediates. In line with the central role of D-bifunctional protein in the beta-oxidation of these three types of fatty acids, all patients with D-bifunctional protein deficiency so far reported in the literature show elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and bile acid inter-mediates. In contrast, we now report two novel patients with D-bifunctional protein deficiency who both have normal levels of bile acid intermediates. Complementation analysis and D-bifunctional protein activity measurements revealed that both patients had an isolated defect in the enoyl-CoA hydratase domain of D-bifunctional protein. Subsequent mutation analysis showed that both patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (N457Y), which is located in the enoyl-CoA hydratase coding part of the D-bifunctional protein gene. Expression of the mutant protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the N457Y mutation is the disease-causing mutation. Immunoblot analysis of patient fibroblast homogenates showed that the protein levels of full-length D-bifunctional protein were strongly reduced while the enoyl-CoA hydratase component produced after processing within the peroxisome was undetectable, which indicates that the mutation leads to an unstable protein. (+info)
Orphan nuclear hormone receptor RevErbalpha modulates expression from the promoter of the hydratase-dehydrogenase gene by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-dependent transactivation.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) heterodimerizes with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXRalpha) to bind to peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPRE) present in the upstream regions of a number of genes involved in metabolic homeostasis. Among these genes are those encoding fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (AOx) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HD), the first two enzymes of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway. Here we demonstrate that the orphan nuclear hormone receptor, RevErbalpha, modulates PPARalpha/RXRalpha- dependent transactivation in a response element-specific manner. In vitro binding analysis showed that RevErbalpha bound the HD-PPRE but not the AOx-PPRE. Determinants within the HD-PPRE required for RevErbalpha binding were distinct from those required for PPARalpha/RXRalpha binding. In transient transfections, RevErbalpha antagonized transactivation by PPARalpha/RXRalpha from an HD-PPRE luciferase reporter construct, whereas no effects were observed with an AOx-PPRE reporter construct. These data identify the HD gene as a target for RevErbalpha and illustrate cross-talk between the RevErbalpha and PPARalpha signaling pathways on the HD-PPRE. Our results suggest a novel role for RevErbalpha in regulating peroxisomal beta-oxidation. (+info)
Shotgun: getting more from sequence similarity searches.
MOTIVATION: As genomic sequencing reveals the range of structural classes generated through the evolution of proteins, analysis of the superfamilies to which they belong can contribute important insights for understanding their structure-function relationships. Current database search techniques fall short of identifying the majority of distant sequence relationships at statistically significant levels. We developed the Shotgun program in an effort to enhance the sensitivity and utility of current database search output. RESULTS: We have developed and used the Shotgun program to identify both new superfamily members and to reconstruct several known enzyme superfamilies using BLAST database searches. An analysis of the false-positive rates generated in the analysis and other control experiments provides evidence that high Shotgun scores indicate real evolutionary relationships. Shotgun is also a useful tool for identifying subgroup relationships within superfamilies and for testing hypotheses about related protein families. AVAILABILITY: By request from the Babbitt lab homepage: http://mako.cgl.ucsf. edu/babbittlab/ CONTACT: [email protected] (+info)
A defect in beta-oxidation causes abnormal inflorescence development in Arabidopsis.
The abnormal inflorescence meristem1 (aim1) mutation affects inflorescence and floral development in Arabidopsis. After the transition to reproductive growth, the aim1 inflorescence meristem becomes disorganized, producing abnormal floral meristems and resulting in plants with severely reduced fertility. The derived amino acid sequence of AIM1 shows extensive similarity to the cucumber multifunctional protein involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids, which possesses l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA hydrolyase, l-3-hydroxyacyl-dehydrogenase, d-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA epimerase, and Delta(3), Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase activities. A defect in beta-oxidation has been confirmed by demonstrating the resistance of the aim1 mutant to 2,4-diphenoxybutyric acid, which is converted to the herbicide 2,4-D by the beta-oxidation pathway. In addition, the loss of AIM1 alters the fatty acid composition of the mature adult plant. (+info)
Biochemical and genetic analyses of ferulic acid catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. Strain HR199.
The gene loci fcs, encoding feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA) synthetase, ech, encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, and aat, encoding beta-ketothiolase, which are involved in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM7063), were localized on a DNA region covered by two EcoRI fragments (E230 and E94), which were recently cloned from a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in the cosmid pVK100. The nucleotide sequences of parts of fragments E230 and E94 were determined, revealing the arrangement of the aforementioned genes. To confirm the function of the structural genes fcs and ech, they were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains harboring both genes were able to transform ferulic acid to vanillin. The feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase activities of the fcs and ech gene products, respectively, were confirmed by photometric assays and by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. To prove the essential involvement of the fcs, ech, and aat genes in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, these genes were inactivated separately by the insertion of omega elements. The corresponding mutants Pseudomonas sp. strain HRfcsOmegaGm and Pseudomonas sp. strain HRechOmegaKm were not able to grow on ferulic acid or on eugenol, whereas the mutant Pseudomonas sp. strain HRaatOmegaKm exhibited a ferulic acid- and eugenol-positive phenotype like the wild type. In conclusion, the degradation pathway of eugenol via ferulic acid and the necessity of the activation of ferulic acid to the corresponding CoA ester was confirmed. The aat gene product was shown not to be involved in this catabolism, thus excluding a beta-oxidation analogous degradation pathway for ferulic acid. Moreover, the function of the ech gene product as an enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase suggests that ferulic acid degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 proceeds via a similar pathway to that recently described for Pseudomonas fluorescens AN103. (+info)