(1/1926) Relocating the active site of activated protein C eliminates the need for its protein S cofactor. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study.
The effect of replacing the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of activated protein C (APC) with that of prothrombin on the topography of the membrane-bound enzyme was examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The average distance of closest approach (assuming kappa2 = 2/3) between a fluorescein in the active site of the chimera and octadecylrhodamine at the membrane surface was 89 A, compared with 94 A for wild-type APC. The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substitution therefore lowered and/or reoriented the active site, repositioning it close to the 84 A observed for the APC. protein S complex. Protein S enhances wild-type APC cleavage of factor Va at Arg306, but the inactivation rate of factor Va Leiden by the chimera alone is essentially equal to that by wild-type APC plus protein S. These data suggest that the activities of the chimera and of the APC.protein S complex are equivalent because the active site of the chimeric protein is already positioned near the optimal location above the membrane surface to cleave Arg306. Thus, one mechanism by which protein S regulates APC activity is by relocating its active site to the proper position above the membrane surface to optimize factor Va cleavage. (+info)
(2/1926) Core RNA polymerase from E. coli induces a major change in the domain arrangement of the sigma 70 subunit.
Luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements were used to show that binding of E. coli core RNA polymerase induced major changes in interdomain distances in the sigma 70 subunit. The simplest model describing core-induced changes in sigma 70 involves a movement of the conserved region 1 by approximately 20 A and the conserved region 4.2 by approximately 15 A with respect to conserved region 2. The core-induced movement of region 1 (autoinhibition domain) and region 4.2 (DNA-binding domain) provides structural rationale for allosteric regulation of sigma 70 DNA binding properties by the core and suggests that this regulation may not only involve directly the autoinhibition domain of sigma 70 but also could involve a modulation of spacing between DNA-binding domains of sigma 70 induced by binding of core RNAP. (+info)
(3/1926) Imaging protein kinase Calpha activation in cells.
Spatially resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), provides a method for tracing the catalytic activity of fluorescently tagged proteins inside live cell cultures and enables determination of the functional state of proteins in fixed cells and tissues. Here, a dynamic marker of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) activation is identified and exploited. Activation of PKCalpha is detected through the binding of fluorescently tagged phosphorylation site-specific antibodies; the consequent FRET is measured through the donor fluorophore on PKCalpha by FLIM. This approach enabled the imaging of PKCalpha activation in live and fixed cultured cells and was also applied to pathological samples. (+info)
(4/1926) TAKs, thylakoid membrane protein kinases associated with energy transduction.
The phosphorylation of proteins within the eukaryotic photosynthetic membrane is thought to regulate a number of photosynthetic processes in land plants and algae. Both light quality and intensity influence protein kinase activity via the levels of reductants produced by the thylakoid electron transport chain. We have isolated a family of proteins called TAKs, Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane threonine kinases that phosphorylate the light harvesting complex proteins. TAK activity is enhanced by reductant and is associated with the photosynthetic reaction center II and the cytochrome b6f complex. TAKs are encoded by a gene family that has striking similarity to transforming growth factor beta receptors of metazoans. Thus thylakoid protein phosphorylation may be regulated by a cascade of reductant-controlled membrane-bound protein kinases. (+info)
(5/1926) Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer on freely diffusing molecules: observation of Forster distance dependence and subpopulations.
Photon bursts from single diffusing donor-acceptor labeled macromolecules were used to measure intramolecular distances and identify subpopulations of freely diffusing macromolecules in a heterogeneous ensemble. By using DNA as a rigid spacer, a series of constructs with varying intramolecular donor-acceptor spacings were used to measure the mean and distribution width of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies as a function of distance. The mean single-pair FRET efficiencies qualitatively follow the distance dependence predicted by Forster theory. Possible contributions to the widths of the FRET efficiency distributions are discussed, and potential applications in the study of biopolymer conformational dynamics are suggested. The ability to measure intramolecular (and intermolecular) distances for single molecules implies the ability to distinguish and monitor subpopulations of molecules in a mixture with different distances or conformational states. This is demonstrated by monitoring substrate and product subpopulations before and after a restriction endonuclease cleavage reaction. Distance measurements at single-molecule resolution also should facilitate the study of complex reactions such as biopolymer folding. To this end, the denaturation of a DNA hairpin was examined by using single-pair FRET. (+info)
(6/1926) Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver.
The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 18.104.22.168] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 22.214.171.124] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant. (+info)
(7/1926) Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and energy dissipation by H+ ion recycling in rat-liver mitochondrial metabolizing pyruvate.
A method was developed for the calculation of metabolic fluxes through individual enzymatic reactions of pyruvate metabolism including the citric acid cycle in rat liver mitochondrial incubated at metabolic states between state 4 and state 3. This method is based on the measurement of the specific radioactivities of the products formed from [2-14C]pyruvate. With this procedure the energy balance of mitochondria incubated in the presence of [2-14C]pyruvate, ATP, bicarbonate and phosphate at different ATP/ADP ratios in the medium was calculated. The ATP/ADP ratios were maintained at a steady state with creatine kinase plus creatine as a phosphoryl acceptor. The calculations revealed that by adding increasing concentrations of creatine up to 20 mM the energy dissipated by the mitochondria decreased but showed a local maximum at 13mM creatine. Omission of bicarbonate from the medium led to a shift of this maximum. When energy dissipation was minimal the overall P/O ratio was maximal. The amount of energy dissipated was paralleled by the magnitude of the pH gradient across the inner membrane. From these results it was concluded that the recycling of H+ ions which consists of a passive leakage of H+ ions into the matrix and an active extrusion of these ions out of this compartment, is an important energy dissipating process. The H+ ion recycling is thus one of the processes which give rise to the state 4 respiration in mitochondria. (+info)
(8/1926) Stoichiometry of a ligand-gated ion channel determined by fluorescence energy transfer.
We have developed a method to determine the stoichiometry of subunits within an oligomeric cell surface receptor using fluorescently tagged antibodies to the individual subunits and measuring energy transfer between them. Anti-c-Myc monoclonal antibody (mAb 9-E10) derivatized with a fluorophore (europium cryptate, EuK) was used to individually label c-Myc-tagged alpha1-, beta2-, or gamma2-subunits of the hetero-oligomeric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor in intact cells. The maximal fluorescent signal derived from the alpha1(c-Myc)beta2gamma2 and the alpha1beta2(c-Myc)gamma2 receptors was twice that obtained with alpha1beta2gamma2(c-Myc), suggesting that there are 2x alpha-, 2x beta-, and 1x gamma-subunits in a receptor monomer. This observation was extended using fluorescence energy transfer. Receptors were half-maximally saturated with EuK-anti-c-Myc mAb, and the remaining alpha1(c-Myc) subunits were labeled with excess anti-c-Myc mAb derivatized with the fluorescence energy acceptor, XL665. On exposure to laser light, energy transfer from EuK to XL665 occurred with alpha1(c-Myc)beta2gamma2 and alpha1beta2(c-Myc)gamma2, but no significant energy transfer was observed with alpha1beta2gamma2(c-Myc) receptors, indicating the absence of a second gamma-subunit in a receptor monomer. We confirm that the GABAA receptor subtype, alpha1beta2gamma2, is composed of two copies each of the alpha- and beta-subunits and one copy of the gamma-subunit (i.e. (alpha1)2(beta2)2(gamma2)1) and conclude that this method would have general applicability to other multisubunit cell surface proteins. (+info)