Incidence and risk factors of late rupture, conversion, and death after endovascular repair of infrarenal aortic aneurysms: the EUROSTAR experience. European Collaborators on Stent/graft techniques for aortic aneurysm repair.
OBJECTIVE: The EUROSTAR (European Collaborators on Stent/graft techniques for aortic aneurysm repair) Registry was established in 1996 to collect data on the outcome of treatment of patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms with endovascular repair. To date, 88 European centers of vascular surgery have contributed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of this treatment in the medium term (up to 4 years) according to the analysis of "hard" or primary end points of rupture, late conversion, and death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with aortic aneurysms suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair were notified to the EUROSTAR Data Registry Centre before treatment to eliminate bias due to selective reporting. The following information was collected on all patients: (1) demographic details and the anatomic characteristics of their aneurysms, (2) details of the endovascular device used, (3) complications encountered during the procedure and the immediate outcome, (4) results of contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after operation and at yearly intervals thereafter, and (5) all adverse events. Life table analysis was performed to determine the cumulative rates of (1) death from all causes, (2) rupture, and (3) late conversion to open repair. Risk factors for rupture and late conversion were identified through regression analysis. RESULTS: By March 2000, 2464 patients had been registered, and their mean duration of follow-up was 12.19 months (SD, 12.3 months). There were 14 patients with confirmed rupture of their aneurysms. The cumulative rate (risk) of rupture was approximately 1% per year. Emergency surgery was undertaken in 12 (86%) patients, of whom five (41.6%) survived. Two patients who were not treated surgically also died, which resulted in an overall death rate of 64.5% (9/14) of the patients. Significant risk factors for rupture were proximal type I endoleak (P =.001), midgraft (type III) endoleak (P =.001), graft migration (P =.001), and postoperative kinking of the endograft (P =.001). Forty-one patients underwent late conversion to open repair with a perioperative mortality rate of 24.4% (10/41). The cumulative rate (risk) of late conversion was approximately 2.1% per year. Risk factors (indications) for late conversion were proximal type I endoleak (P =. 001), midgraft (type III) endoleak (P =.001), type II endoleak (P =. 003), graft migration (P =.001), graft kinking (P =.001), and distal type I endoleak (P =.001). CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular repair of infrarenal aortic aneurysms with the first- and second-generation devices that predominated in this study was associated with a risk of late failure, according to an analysis of observed hard end points of 3% per year. Action taken to address the risk factors identified by the study may improve results in the future. (+info)
Effect of pravastatin on coronary disease events in subgroups defined by coronary risk factors: the Prospective Pravastatin Pooling Project.
BACKGROUND: Previous trials have had insufficient numbers of coronary events to address definitively the effect of lipid-modifying therapy on coronary heart disease in subgroups of patients with varying baseline characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: The data from 3 large randomized trials with pravastatin 40 mg were pooled and analyzed with the use of a prospectively defined protocol. Included were 19 768 patients, 102 559 person-years of follow-up, 2194 primary end points (coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction), and 3717 expanded end points (primary end point, CABG, or PTCA). Pravastatin significantly reduced relative risk in younger (<65 years) and older (>/=65 years) patients, men and women, smokers and nonsmokers, and patients with or without diabetes or hypertension. The relative effect was smaller, but absolute risk reduction was similar in patients with hypertension compared with those without hypertension. Relative risk reduction was significant in predefined categories of baseline lipid concentrations. Tests for interaction were not significant between relative risk reduction and baseline total cholesterol (5% to 95% range 177 to 297 mg/dL, 4.6 to 7.7 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (27 to 58 mg/dL, 0.7 to 1.5 mmol/L), and triglyceride (74 to 302 mg/dL, 0.8 to 3.4 mmol/L) concentrations, analyzed as continuous variables. However, for LDL cholesterol, the probability values for interaction were 0.068 for the prespecified primary end point and 0.019 for the expanded end point. Relative risk reduction was similar throughout most of the baseline LDL cholesterol range (125 to 212 mg/dL, 3.2 to 5.5 mmol/L) with the possible exception of the lowest quintile of CARE/LIPID (<125 mg/dL) (relative risk reduction 5%, 95% CI 19% to -12%). CONCLUSIONS: Pravastatin treatment is effective in reducing coronary heart disease events in patients with high or low risk factor status and across a wide range of pretreatment lipid concentrations. (+info)
Treatment of patients with metastatic renal carcinoma with a combination of subcutaneous interleukin-2 and interferon alfa with or without fluorouracil. Groupe Francais d'Immunotherapie, Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer.
PURPOSE: Subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and recombinant interferon alfa-2a (rIFNalpha-2a) have been used extensively in the treatment of metastatic renal cancer. Most results, coming from noncontrolled phase II trials, showed inconsistent rates of response. More recently, the addition of fluorouracil (FU) was proposed to improve the efficacy of these regimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The role of a subcutaneous combination of rIL-2 and rIFNalpha-2a with or without FU was investigated. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a combination of rIL-2 and rIFNalpha-2a at weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7 or the same combination together with a continuous infusion of FU at weeks 1 and 5. The major end points of this multicenter, randomized trial were progression-free survival, response rate, and toxicity. Overall survival was a secondary end point. Tumor responses were reviewed by an independent committee. Analysis of the results was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one patients were enrolled. There was no difference in toxicity between the arms, and no toxic death was observed. One partial response was observed in arm A and five in arm B. Progression-free survival did not differ between the arms, and rates at 1 year were 12% and 15% in arms A and B, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected in any end point. CONCLUSION: The subcutaneous combination of rIL-2 and rIFNalpha-2a with or without FU does not benefit patients with metastatic renal carcinoma. Neither of these regimens can be recommended as standard treatment. The results of the subcutaneous cytokine regimen seem disappointing. (+info)
Gene transfer as an approach to treating hemophilia.
Hemophilia is an X-linked bleeding diathesis caused by a deficiency of either factor VIII or factor IX. Present treatment for hemophilia involves intravenous infusion of either recombinant or plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates. Problems with this treatment method, including the expense, need for intravenous access, and risks of blood-borne disease transmission, have fueled an interest in developing a gene-transfer approach to treatment. On the basis of experience with protein concentrate therapy, it seems likely that even modest elevations in circulating levels of factor VIII or factor IX can prevent most of the mortality and much of the morbidity associated with the disease. Hemophilia has a number of advantages as a model system for working out strategies for gene transfer as an approach to the treatment of genetic diseases; these include wide latitude in choice of target tissue, a wide therapeutic window for levels of circulating factor, ease of determining therapeutic endpoints, and existence of excellent animal models of the disease. Preclinical studies over the last decade have recently culminated in the initiation of clinical trials of gene transfer for hemophilia A and B. Three trials, each using different vectors and target tissues, are presently underway, and two additional trials are in late planning stages. This report reviews the preclinical data underlying these strategies and the design of the ongoing and proposed clinical trials. (+info)
The mouse uterotrophic assay: a reevaluation of its validity in assessing the estrogenicity of bisphenol A.
The prevalence of synthetic chemicals in our environment that are capable of mimicking the female hormone estrogen is a growing concern. One such chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to leach from a variety of resin-based and plastic products, including dental sealants and food and beverage containers, in concentrations that are sufficient to induce cell proliferation in vitro. The response to BPA in vivo has been varied; thus the aims of this study were to investigate a) whether BPA has an estrogenic effect in CD-1 mice, a strain that is useful for developmental studies; and b) whether the uterotrophic assay is a valid means of determining the estrogenicity of BPA by comparing it with other end points measured in the uterus. Immature female CD-1 mice were exposed to BPA in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg/kg body weight for 3 days. Results showed that BPA induced a significant increase in the height of luminal epithelial cells within the uterus at concentrations of 5, 75, and 100 mg/kg and that BPA induced lactoferrin at concentrations of 75 and 100 mg/kg. A uterotrophic response (increase in uterine wet weight) was induced by 100 mg/kg BPA only. Further, the proportion of mice showing vaginal opening was greater after exposure to 0.1 and 100 mg/kg BPA, relative to the control animals and those receiving intermediate doses of BPA. These results demonstrate that BPA induces changes in the mouse uterus that differ depending on the exposure dose and the end point measured, and reveal that certain tissue effects show a nonmonotonic relationship with dose. These data also demonstrate that BPA induces estrogenic changes in the uterus of the CD-1 mouse, and highlight the need to reevaluate the validity of the mouse uterotrophic assay as an end point for determining the estrogenicity of suspected environmental estrogens. (+info)
5-fluorouracil steady state pharmacokinetics and outcome in patients receiving protracted venous infusion for advanced colorectal cancer.
PVI 5FU gives increased response rates and reduced toxicity when compared to bolus 5FU (J Clin Oncol 1989, 425-432). PVI 5FU administration was reported to give highly variable (>1000-fold) plasma 5FU concentrations at steady state (FU Css) which correlated with toxicity (Ann Oncol 1996, 47-53); but only 19 patients were studied. Therefore, we performed a study of PVI 5FU in 61 patients with advanced colorectal cancer to assess the variability (inter- and intra-subject) in 5FU Css associated with PVI 5FU (300 mg m(-2)day(-1)) and to attempt to correlate pharmacodynamic end-points (anti-tumour activity, toxicity) with 5FU Css as a prelude to 'exposure-guided' 5FU administration. All 5FU sampling was performed between 10 am and noon. PVI 5FU administration continued to 26 weeks in patients with disease improvement or stabilization. The response rate was 26% (33% stable disease) and median survival was 11 months. Hand-foot syndrome was the most common dose limiting toxicity. Variability in 5FU(300)Css was considerably less than previously reported; 94 +/- 25 ng ml(-1)(CV = 27%). No relationships were demonstrated between subject mean 5FU(300)Css and PD end-points such as response, mucositis, diarrhoea and hand-foot syndrome. The lack of correlation suggests that measurement of 5FU concentrations should not be used to individualize dosing in patients receiving PVI 5FU for advanced colorectal cancer. (+info)
Improved prognostication of renal cell carcinoma using an integrated staging system.
PURPOSE: To integrate stage, grade, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) into a clinically useful tool capable of stratifying the survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 661 patients undergoing nephrectomy at University of California Los Angeles between 1989 and 1999 were evaluated. Median age was 61 years, male-to-female ratio was 2.2:1, and median follow-up was 37 months. Survival time was the primary end point assessed. Sixty-four possible combinations of stage, grade, and ECOG PS were analyzed and collapsed into distinct groups. The internal validity of the categorized was challenged by a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis testing for the accountability of each UCLA Integrated Staging System (UISS) category against independent variables shown to have impact on survival. RESULTS: Combining and stratifying 1997 tumor-node-metastasis stage, Fuhrman's grade and ECOG PS resulted in five survival stratification groups designated UISS, and numbered I to V. The projected 2- and 5-year survival for the UISS groups are as follows for the groups: I, 96% and 94%; II, 89% and 67%; III, 66% and 39%; IV, 42% and 23%; and V, 9% and 0%, respectively. UISS accounted for the significant variables in the variate analysis. CONCLUSION: A novel system for staging and predicting survival for RCC integrating clinical variables is offered. UISS is simple to use and is superior to stage alone in differentiating patients' survival. Our data suggests that UISS is an important prognostic tool for counseling patients with various stages of kidney cancer. Further prospective large-scale validation with external data is awaited. (+info)
Clinical trial designs for the early clinical development of therapeutic cancer vaccines.
There are major differences between therapeutic tumor vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents that have important implications for the design of early clinical trials. Many vaccines are inherently safe and do not require phase I dose finding trials. Patients with advanced cancers and compromised immune systems are not good candidates for assessing either the toxicity or efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines. The rapid pace of development of new vaccine candidates and the variety of possible adjuvants and modifications in method of administration makes it important to use efficient designs for clinical screening and evaluation of vaccine regimens. We review the potential advantages of a wide range of clinical trial designs for the development of tumor vaccines. We address the role of immunological endpoints in early clinical trials of tumor vaccines, investigate the design implications of attempting to use disease stabilization as an end point and discuss the difficulties of reliably utilizing historical control data. Several conclusions for expediting the clinical development of effective cancer vaccines are proposed. (+info)