Postnatal growth failure, short life span, and early onset of cellular senescence and subsequent immortalization in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene.
The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) gene (XPG) encodes a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP-G patients show various symptoms, ranging from mild cutaneous abnormalities to severe dermatological impairments. In some cases, patients exhibit growth failure and life-shortening and neurological dysfunctions, which are characteristics of Cockayne syndrome (CS). The known XPG protein function as the 3' nuclease in NER, however, cannot explain the development of CS in certain XP-G patients. To gain an insight into the functions of the XPG protein, we have generated and examined mice lacking xpg (the mouse counterpart of the human XPG gene) alleles. The xpg-deficient mice exhibited postnatal growth failure and underwent premature death. Since XPA-deficient mice, which are totally defective in NER, do not show such symptoms, our data indicate that XPG performs an additional function(s) besides its role in NER. Our in vitro studies showed that primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the xpg-deficient mice underwent premature senescence and exhibited the early onset of immortalization and accumulation of p53. (+info)
A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii.
In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity. (+info)
Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein.
Oxidized pyrimidines in DNA are removed by a distinct base excision repair pathway initiated by the DNA glycosylase--AP lyase hNth1 in human cells. We have reconstituted this single-residue replacement pathway with recombinant proteins, including the AP endonuclease HAP1/APE, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III-XRCC1 heterodimer. With these proteins, the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPG serves as a cofactor for the efficient function of hNth1. XPG protein promotes binding of hNth1 to damaged DNA. The stimulation of hNth1 activity is retained in XPG catalytic site mutants inactive in nucleotide excision repair. The data support the model that development of Cockayne syndrome in XP-G patients is related to inefficient excision of endogenous oxidative DNA damage. (+info)
Conserved residues of human XPG protein important for nuclease activity and function in nucleotide excision repair.
The human XPG endonuclease cuts on the 3' side of a DNA lesion during nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in XPG can lead to the disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome. XPG shares sequence similarities in two regions with a family of structure-specific nucleases and exonucleases. To begin defining its catalytic mechanism, we changed highly conserved residues and determined the effects on the endonuclease activity of isolated XPG, its function in open complex formation and dual incision reconstituted with purified proteins, and its ability to restore cellular resistance to UV light. The substitution A792V present in two XP complementation group G (XP-G) individuals reduced but did not abolish endonuclease activity, explaining their mild clinical phenotype. Isolated XPG proteins with Asp-77 or Glu-791 substitutions did not cleave DNA. In the reconstituted repair system, alanine substitutions at these positions permitted open complex formation but were inactive for 3' cleavage, whereas D77E and E791D proteins retained considerable activity. The function of each mutant protein in the reconstituted system was mirrored by its ability to restore UV resistance to XP-G cell lines. Hydrodynamic measurements indicated that XPG exists as a monomer in high salt conditions, but immunoprecipitation of intact and truncated XPG proteins showed that XPG polypeptides can interact with each other, suggesting dimerization as an element of XPG function. The mutation results define critical residues in the catalytic center of XPG and strongly suggest that key features of the strand cleavage mechanism and active site structure are shared by members of the nuclease family. (+info)
A restriction endonuclease from Staphylococcus aureus.
A specific endonuclease, Sau 3AI, has been partially purified from Staphylococcus aureus strain 3A by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The enzyme cleaves adenovirus type 5 DNA many times, SV40 DNA eight times but does not cleave double-stranded phi X174 DNA. It recognizes the sequence (see article) and cleaves as indicated by the arrows. Evidence is presented that this enzyme plays a role in the biological restriction-modification system of Staphylococcus aureus strain 3A. (+info)
Chromatin structure: a property of the higher structures of chromatin and in the time course of its formation during chromatin replication.
The action of a number of enzymes and metals on one nuclear preparation were interpreted in terms of the existence of a fragile but highly DNAase-I resistant feature of chromatin superstructure. The generation of this DNAase-I resistance feature of chromatin was then followed during normal DNA synthesis in the regenerating rat liver by following the disappearance of a transitory DNAase-I susceptible state. This transitory, DNAase-I susceptible state appears to be extremely similar to the post-synthetic, DNAase-I susceptible state that has been described in He La32. (+info)
'Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2/6 complex interacts with Holliday junctions and facilitates their cleavage by phage resolution enzymes.
Genetic and biochemical studies have indicated that mismatch repair proteins can interact with recombination intermediates. In this study, gel shift assays and electron microscopic analysis were used to show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2/6 complex binds to Holliday junctions and has an affinity and specificity for them that is at least as high as it has as for mispaired bases. Under equilibrium binding conditions, the MSH2/6 complex had a Kd of binding to Holliday junctions of 0.5 nM. The MSH2/6 complex enhanced the cleavage of Holliday junctions by T4 endonuclease VII and T7 endonuclease I. This is consistent with the view that the MSH2/6 complex can function in both mismatch repair and the resolution of recombination intermediates as predicted by genetic studies. (+info)
Defective repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage caused by reduced XPA protein in testicular germ cell tumours.
Metastatic cancer in adults usually has a fatal outcome. In contrast, advanced testicular germ cell tumours are cured in over 80% of patients using cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy . An understanding of why these cells are sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs is likely to have implications for the treatment of other types of cancer. Earlier measurements indicate that testis tumour cells are hypersensitive to cisplatin and have a low capacity to remove cisplatin-induced DNA damage from the genome  . We have investigated the nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity of extracts from the well-defined 833K and GCT27 human testis tumour cell lines. Both had a reduced ability to carry out the incision steps of NER in comparison with extracts from known repair-proficient cells. Immunoblotting revealed that the testis tumour cells had normal amounts of most NER proteins, but low levels of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) and the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease complex. Addition of XPA specifically conferred full NER capacity on the testis tumour extracts. These results show that a low XPA level in the testis tumour cell lines is sufficient to explain their poor ability to remove cisplatin adducts from DNA and might be a major reason for the high cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumours. Targeted inhibition of XPA could sensitise other types of cells and tumours to cisplatin and broaden the usefulness of this chemotherapeutic agent. (+info)