(1/130) Pharmacological characterization of beta2-adrenoceptor in PGT-beta mouse pineal gland tumour cells.
1. The adrenoceptor in a mouse pineal gland tumour cell line (PGT-beta) was identified and characterized using pharmacological and physiological approaches. 2. Adrenaline and noradrenaline, adrenoceptor agonists, stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Adrenaline was a more potent activator of cyclic AMP generation than noradrenaline, with half maximal-effective concentrations (EC50) seen at 175+/-22 nM and 18+/-2 microM for adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. 3. The addition of forskolin synergistically stimulated the adrenaline-mediated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner. 4. The pA2 value for the specific beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 (8.7+/-0.4) as an antagonist of the adrenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP generation were 3 units higher than the value for the betaI-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (5.6+/-0.3). 5. Treatment of the cells with adrenaline and forskolin evoked a 3 fold increase in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase with the peak occurring 6 h after stimulation. 6. These results suggest the presence of beta2-adrenoceptors in mouse pineal cells and a functional relationship between the adenylyl cyclase system and the regulation of N-acetyltransferase expression. (+info)
(2/130) Presence of sorbin in human digestive tract and endocrine digestive tumours.
BACKGROUND: Sorbin, a 153 amino acid peptide isolated from porcine intestine, was localised by immunohistochemistry in endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa and pancreas and in the enteric nervous system in the pig. AIMS: To identify sorbin cells in normal human digestive tissues and to explore the expression of sorbin in 37 digestive endocrine tumours: 14 intestinal carcinoid tumours and 23 endocrine pancreatic tumours including six insulinomas. METHODS: Two polyclonal antibodies against the C-terminal and the N-terminal sequences of porcine sorbin raised in rabbit were used to evaluate sorbin expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the human digestive tract, sorbin, characterised by both C-terminal and N-terminal immunoreactivity, was found in enterochromaffin cells of the gastric and intestinal epithelium from the pyloric junction to the descending colon. C-Terminal sorbin immunoreactivity alone was found in plexii from the enteric nervous system and in some insulin-containing cells of normal pancreas. C-Terminal and N-terminal antibodies disclosed sorbin in five of 14 intestinal carcinoid tumours; C-terminal antibody alone disclosed a C-terminal sorbin peptide in two of six insulinomas and three of 17 endocrine pancreatic tumours. The presence of sorbin was not associated with a specific clinical syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Sorbin is present in the digestive tract in several forms. It is expressed in some intestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumours. (+info)
(3/130) Site-specific epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in digestive neuroendocrine tumors. An experimental in vivo and in vitro study.
Little is known about the functional interactions between digestive neuroendocrine tumor cells and their stromal microenvironment. The focus of our study is whether mesenchymal cells modulate peptide expression, cell proliferation, and invasiveness in digestive neuroendocrine tumor cells. We designed an experimental in vivo and in vitro study using the mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. In vivo, STC-1 cells were injected subcutaneously in 18 immunosuppressed newborn rats. At day 21, all animals presented poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors with lung metastases. Subcutaneous tumors were usually limited by a capsule containing basement membrane components and myofibroblasts that presented a low mitotic index. Lung tumors were devoid of capsule and poor in myofibroblasts, and their mitotic index was high. The profile of peptide expression in STC-1 tumors was different from that of cultured STC-1 cells. In vitro, STC-1 cells were cultured with fibroblasts of different origins, including dermis, lung, digestive tract, and liver. Based on their origin, myofibroblasts differentially modulated hormone synthesis, proliferation, spreading, and adhesion of STC-1 cells. In conclusion, our results show that site-specific functional interactions between mesenchymal and neuroendocrine cells may contribute to modulating the behavior of digestive neuroendocrine tumors, depending on their growth site. (+info)
(4/130) Hormonal approaches to the chemoprevention of endocrine-dependent tumors.
The estrogen dependency of human breast cancer has been successfully exploited in the treatment of early and advanced diseases and provides a unique opportunity for chemoprevention of this common malignancy. Preliminary results with the antiestrogens Tamoxifen and Raloxifene show an encouraging reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Alternative approaches include the use of highly selective and non-toxic aromatase inhibitors and, in premenopausal women, the use of LHRH agonists in conjunction with the administration of small doses of estrogen and progesterone. The rationale for these chemopreventive strategies and their possible limitations are briefly discussed. (+info)
(5/130) Metallothionein in pancreatic endocrine neoplasms.
Metallothioneins (MTs) are intracellular proteins that bind to metal ions and are involved in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. Pancreatic islets were shown to be positive for zinc-containing matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 by immunocytochemical staining. The immunolocalization of matrix metalloproteinases in pancreatic islets prompted us to study further the link between zinc and MT in 34 cases of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, including insulinomas, glucagonomas, gastrinomas, pancreatic polypeptide-omas, and non-functioning endocrine neoplasms. Four types of islet cells were found to be positive for MT, whereas pancreatic endocrine neoplasms mostly were either weakly positive or negative for MT. The presence of MT in normal islet cells and pancreatic endocrine neoplasms is consistent with the notion that MTs modulate zinc homeostasis and metabolism in pancreatic islet cells and pancreatic endocrine neoplasms as those tissues contain zinc-containing matrix metalloproteinases. (+info)
(6/130) Synaptic vesicle protein 2, A new neuroendocrine cell marker.
Synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is a glycoprotein identified in the nervous system of several species, including man, but its occurrence in the human neuroendocrine (NE) cell system has not been investigated. By using a monoclonal antibody to SV2, immunoreactivities were demonstrated in NE cell types in human gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, anterior pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal medulla, and also in chief cells of gastric oxyntic mucosa. Immunoelectron microscopy of pancreatic islets revealed SV2 immunoreactivity in secretory granules. Comparison of SV2, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A immunoreactivity showed more SV2- and synaptophysin- than chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells in the antrum and pancreas. In the other gastrointestinal regions and in the other endocrine organs more SV2- than synaptophysin-immunoreactive cells were seen. More chromogranin A- than SV2-immunoreactive cells were observed in duodenum, colon, and parathyroid. Various NE tumors were examined and all contained SV2-immunoreactive cells. The staining patterns with the three markers agreed well, except in hindgut carcinoids, which showed strong SV2 immunoreactivity, weak synaptophysin but no chromogranin A immunostaining. In pituitary adenomas more cells were immunoreactive to SV2 than to the other two antibodies. In conclusion, SV2 is recognized as a further broad marker for NE cells and widens the arsenal of diagnostic tools for NE tumors. It is of special importance for identifying hindgut carcinoids. (+info)
(7/130) New perspectives for gene therapy in endocrinology.
Gene therapy for endocrine diseases represents an exciting new type of molecular intervention that may be a curative one. Endocrine disorders that might be treated by gene therapy include monogenic diseases, such as GH deficiency and hypothalamic diabetes insipidus, and multifactorial diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and cancer. Premises seem promising for endocrine tumours, but many combined approaches of cell and gene therapy are foreseeable also for other endocrine disorders. This review outlines the principles of gene therapy, describes the endocrine disorders that might take advantage of gene transfer approaches, as well as the gene therapy interventions that have already been attempted, their major limitations and the problems that remain to be solved. (+info)
(8/130) Coexistence of an endocrine tumour in a serous cystadenoma (microcystic adenoma) of the pancreas, an unusual association.
A pancreatic endocrine tumour arising within a serous cystadenoma is reported. A 49 year old woman was admitted with a history of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss of two months duration. She had been diabetic for 12 years. An epigastric mass was palpated in the physical examination, and computed tomography revealed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the pancreas. Pathological examination of the pancreatic tumour revealed the coexistence of a serous cystadenoma and an endocrine tumour. The endocrine tumour, which was located inside the serous cystadenoma, was 1 cm in diameter. The first case of a serous cystadenoma of the pancreas containing a pancreatic endocrine tumour was reported in the literature recently. This paper reports another incidentally found pancreatic endocrine tumour arising within a serous cystadenoma. (+info)