(1/544) Echocardiographic diagnosis of large fungal verruca attached to mitral valve.
In a patient with endocarditis due to Candida tropicalis echocardiograms from mitral valve vegetations were found to mimic the typical pattern of a left atrial myxoma. A mass was shown occupying the mitral orifice posterior to the anterior mitral leaflet; densities also appeared in the left atrium. Though these echocardiographic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of a left atrial myxoma, there were other distinctive differential diagnostic features. Other diagnostic possibilities must, therefore, be considered in the interpretation of echocardiograms which suggest left atrial tumour. (+info)
(2/544) Long-term survival and valve-related complications in young women with cardiac valve replacements.
BACKGROUND: The type of cardiac valve replacement associated with the lowest health risks for young women who may undergo pregnancies is unknown. We investigated which valve type was associated with greatest patient and valve survival and the effect of pregnancy on valve loss. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective study, all women 12 to 35 years old who underwent valve replacements between 1972 and 1992 at Greenlane Hospital were identified, and follow-up was available in 93%. The 232 women were followed up for 1499 patient-years. Ten-year survival of women with mechanical (n=178), bioprosthetic (n=73), and homograft (n=72) valves was 70% (95% CI, 59% to 83%), 84% (95% CI, 72% to 99%), and 96% (95% CI, 91% to 100%), P=0.002. After adjustment for confounding variables, the relative risk (RR) of death with mechanical compared with bioprosthetic valves was 2.17 (95% CI, 0.78 to 5.88). Thromboembolic events occurred in 45% of women with mechanical valves within 5 years, compared with 13% with bioprosthetic valves, P=0.0001. Valve loss at 10 years was higher in bioprosthetic valves [82% (95% CI, 62% to 92%)] than in mechanical [29% (95% CI, 17% to 39%)] or homograft [28% (95% CI, 12% to 41%)] valves, P=0.0001. Pregnancy was not associated with increased bioprosthetic (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1. 35), homograft (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.13), or mechanical (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.08) valve loss. CONCLUSIONS: Although 10-year valve survival was greater with mechanical than bioprosthetic valves, mechanical valves may be associated with reduced patient survival in young women. Thromboembolic complications, often with long-term sequelae, were common with mechanical valves. Pregnancy did not increase structural deterioration or reduce survival of bioprosthetic valves. (+info)
(3/544) Preventive health care, 1999 update: 2. Echocardiography for the detection of a cardiac source of embolus in patients with stroke. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.
OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines for the use of echocardiography in the investigation of patients with stroke. OPTIONS: (1) Routine transthoracic echocardiography (TTE); (2) routine transesophageal echocardiography (TEE); (3) routine TTE followed by TEE if the TTE findings are noncontributory; (4) selective TTE or TEE in patients with cardiac disease who would not otherwise receive anticoagulant therapy. OUTCOMES: This article reviews the available evidence on the yield of TTE and TEE in detecting cardiac sources of cerebral emboli in patients with stroke, the effectiveness of treatment for cardiac sources of emboli and the effectiveness of screening echocardiography for secondary stroke prevention. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched for relevant articles published from January 1966 to April 1998; also reviewed were additional articles identified from the bibliographies and citations obtained from experts. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Echocardiography can detect intracardiac masses (thrombus, vegetation or tumour) in about 4% (with TTE) to 11% (with TEE) of stroke patients. The yield is lower among patients without clinical evidence of cardiac disease by history, physical examination, electrocardiography or chest radiography (less than 2%) than among patients with clinical evidence of cardiac disease (less than 19%). The risks of echocardiography to patients are small. TTE has virtually no risks, and TEE is associated with cardiac, pulmonary and bleeding complications in 0.18%. Patients with an identified intracardiac thrombus are at increased risk for embolic events (absolute risk uncertain, range 0%-38%), and this appears to be reduced with anticoagulant therapy (absolute risk reduction uncertain). Anticoagulant therapy carries a risk of major hemorrhage of 1% to 3% per year. The overall effectiveness of echocardiography in the prevention of recurrent stroke is unknown. VALUES: The strength of evidence was evaluated using the methods of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is fair evidence to recommend echocardiography in patients with stroke and clinical evidence of cardiac disease by history, physical examination, electrocardiography or chest radiography (grade B recommendation). There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against TEE in patients with normal results of TTE (grade C recommendation). There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine echocardiography in patients (including young patients) without clinical cardiac disease (grade C recommendation). Routine echocardiography is not recommended for patients with clinical cardiac disease who have independent indications for or contraindications to anticoagulant therapy (grade D recommendation). There is fair evidence to recommend anticoagulant therapy in patients with stroke and intracardiac thrombus (grade B recommendation). There is insufficient (no) evidence to recommend for or against any specific therapy for patent foramen ovale (grade C recommendation). VALIDATION: The findings of this analysis were reviewed through an iterative process by the members of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. (+info)
(4/544) Efficacies of high-dose fluconazole plus amphotericin B and high-dose fluconazole plus 5-fluorocytosine versus amphotericin B, fluconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine monotherapies in treatment of experimental endocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pyelonephritis due to Candida albicans.
We compared the efficacies of fluconazole (Flu), amphotericin B (AmB), and 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) monotherapies with the combination of Flu plus 5FC and Flu plus AmB in a rabbit model of Candida albicans endocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pyelonephritis. The dose of Flu used was that which resulted in an area under the concentration-time curve in rabbits equivalent to that seen in humans who receive Flu at 1,600 mg/day, the highest dose not associated with central nervous system toxicity in humans. Quantitative cultures of heart valve vegetations, the choroid-retina, vitreous humor, and kidney were conducted after 1, 5, 14, and 21 days of therapy. All untreated controls died within 6 days of infection; animals treated with 5FC monotherapy all died within 18 days. In contrast, 93% of animals in the other treatment groups appeared well and survived until they were sacrificed. At day 5, the relative decreases in CFU per gram in the vitreous humor were greater in groups that received Flu alone and in combination with 5FC or AmB than in groups receiving AmB or 5FC monotherapies (P < 0. 005) but were similar thereafter. In the choroid-retina, 5FC was the least-active drug. However, there were no differences in choroidal fungal densities between the other treatment groups. On days 5 and 14 of therapy, fungal densities in kidneys of AmB recipients were lower than those resulting from the other therapies (P < 0.001 and P < or = 0.038, respectively) and AmB-plus-Flu therapy was antagonistic; however, all therapies for fungal pyelonephritis were similar by treatment day 21. While fungal counts in cardiac valves of Flu recipients were similar to those of controls on day 5 of therapy and did not change from days 1 to 21, AmB therapy significantly decreased valvular CFUs versus Flu at days 5, 14, and 21 (P < 0.005 at each time point). 5FC plus Flu demonstrated enhanced killing in cardiac vegetations compared with Flu or 5FC as monotherapies (P < 0. 03). Similarly, the combination of AmB and Flu was more active than Flu in reducing the fungal density in cardiac vegetations (P < 0.03). However, as in the kidney, AmB plus Flu demonstrated antagonism versus AmB monotherapy in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis (P < 0.05, P = 0.036, and P < 0.008 on days 5, 14, and 21, respectively). (+info)
(5/544) Adhesion molecules (E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) in sera from patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia with or without endocarditis.
The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate if patients with endocarditis display a more extensive endothelial activation than those with bacteraemia but without endocarditis. Sixty-five patients with blood culture-verified Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia were included and serum samples collected on admission were analysed by enzyme immunoassays. Elevated serum concentrations of adhesion molecules were found in most of the patients with S. aureus bacteraemia. Patients with endocarditis (n = 15) showed significantly higher serum E-selectin (median 156 ng/ml) and VCAM-1 (median 1745 ng/ml) concentrations compared with those with S. aureus bacteraemia but without endocarditis (80 ng/ml and 1172 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.01 and P = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the groups concerning ICAM-1 (median 451 ng/ml versus 522 ng/ml). In addition, serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.002) to serum levels of E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. (+info)
(6/544) Repeated pregnancies in BALB/c mice infected with Coxiella burnetii cause disseminated infection, resulting in stillbirth and endocarditis.
Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Although this highly virulent organism is most concentrated in mammals during parturition, there are few reports on the manifestations of perinatal Q fever in the human and animal host. The affinity of C. burnetii to pregnancy and its abortifacient potential were investigated in a murine animal model. Intraperitoneal infection of female BALB/c mice with C. burnetii, followed by repeated pregnancies over a 2-year period, resulted in persistent infection associated with abortion and perinatal death, with a statistically significant decrease in viable offspring. In addition, endocarditis occurred in 2 of the adult animals, and C. burnetii antigen and DNA were detected in their heart valves. Taken together, these results demonstrate the abortifacient potential of C. burnetii and the increased risk of persistent infection and endocarditis in pregnant mice, probably related to a decline in cellular immunity during pregnancy. (+info)
(7/544) Antibody responses in patients with staphylococcal septicemia against two Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding proteins: clumping factor and an extracellular fibrinogen binding protein.
We analyzed the serum antibody responses against two Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding proteins, the cell-bound clumping factor (Clf) and an extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb). The material consisted of 105 consecutive serum samples from 41 patients suffering from S. aureus septicemia and 72 serum samples from healthy individuals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Healthy individuals showed variable levels of antibodies against the studied antigens, and cutoff levels (upper 95th percentile) against these antigens were determined. No correlation was seen between serum antibody levels against Clf and Efb. In acute-phase samples 27% of patients showed positive antibody levels against Clf and 10% showed positive levels against Efb, while in convalescent-phase samples 63% (26 of 41) showed a positive serology against Clf and 49% (20 of 41) showed a positive serology against Efb. Antibody levels against Efb were significantly lower in the acute-phase sera than in sera from healthy individuals (P = 0. 002). An antibody response against Clf was most frequent in patients suffering from osteitis plus septic arthritis and from endocarditis (80% positive). The antibody response against Efb appeared to develop later in the course of disease. A possible biological effect of measured antibodies was demonstrated with the help of an inhibition ELISA, in which both high-titer and low-titer sera inhibited the binding of bacteria to fibrinogen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated in vivo production of S. aureus fibrinogen binding proteins during deep S. aureus infections and a possible diagnostic and prophylactic role of the corresponding serum antibodies in such infections. (+info)
(8/544) Neonatal candidial endocarditis--a rare manifestation of systemic candidiasis.
Infective candidial endocarditis in four premature neonates is reported. These occurred as a complication of systemic candidiasis. Vegetations were present on the right side of the heart in two cases and both sides in the other two. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Mortality rate is high despite appropriate therapy. (+info)