High-resolution physical and genetic mapping of the critical region for Meckel syndrome and Mulibrey Nanism on chromosome 17q22-q23.
Previously, we assigned the genes for two autosomal recessive disorders, Meckel syndrome (MKS; MIM 249000) and Mulibrey Nanism [MUL (muscle-liver-brain-eye Nanism); MIM 253250] that are enriched in the Finnish population, to overlapping genomic regions on chromosome 17q. Now, we report the construction of a bacterial clone contig over the critical region for both disorders. Several novel CA-repeat markers were isolated from these clones, which allowed refined mapping of the MKS and MUL loci using haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis. The localization of the MKS locus was narrowed to <1 cM between markers D17S1290 and 132-CA, within an approximately 800-kb region. The MUL locus was refined into an approximately 1400-kb interval between markers D17S1290 and 52-CA. The whole MKS region falls within the MUL region. In the common critical region, the conserved haplotypes were different in MKS and MUL patients. A trancript map was constructed by assigning expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes, derived from the human gene map, to the bacterial clone contig. Altogether, four genes and a total of 20 ESTs were precisely localized. These data provide the molecular tools for the final identification of the MKS and the MUL genes. (+info)
Neural tube defects along the Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1995.
In response to a 1991 anencephaly cluster in Cameron County, Texas, a surveillance and neural tube defect (NTD) recurrence prevention project for NTDs was implemented in the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties. For 1993-1995, NTD-affected pregnancies were identified at all gestational ages through active surveillance of multiple case-ascertainment sources. There were 87 cases of anencephaly, 96 cases of spina bifida, and 14 cases of encephalocele for respective rates of 6.4, 7.1, and 1.1 per 10,000 live births. Of the 197 NTD case-women, 93% were Hispanic. The overall, Hispanic, and Anglo NTD rates were, respectively, 14.6, 14.9, and 10.6 per 10,000 live births. The NTD rate for El Paso County (9.8 per 10,000), the most northwestern Texas county, was significantly lower (p = 0.001) than the aggregate rate for the rest of the Texas border (17.1 per 10,000). The overall Texas border rate was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than a recently estimated rate of 9.3 for California and minimally higher than a recently adjusted rate of 11.3 for the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program counties (p = 0.052), both of which now reflect all gestational ages. Of the 197 Texas border cases, 85% (168 cases) reached a gestational age of > or =20 weeks. Excluding cases of <20 weeks' gestation in the rate had a more marked effect on reducing the anencephaly rate (4.9 per 10,000) than the spina bifida rate (6.7 per 10,000). A country of birth was known for 153 (83%) of the 184 Hispanic case-women: 63% were born in Mexico; 24%, in Texas; and 11%, elsewhere in the United States. Rates for Mexico-born Hispanic women (15.1 per 10,000) were significantly higher than rates for United States-born Hispanic women (9.5 per 10,000) (p = 0.006). (+info)
Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery associated with transsphenoidal encephalocele: a neural crest syndrome?
We describe two original cases of internal carotid artery dysgenesis associated with a malformative spectrum, which includes transsphenoidal encephalocele, optic nerve coloboma, hypopituitarism, and hypertelorism. Cephalic neural crest cells migrate to various regions in the head and neck where they contribute to the development of structures as diverse as the anterior skull base, the walls of the craniofacial arteries, the forebrain, and the face. Data suggest that the link between these rare malformations is abnormal neural crest development. (+info)
Central brain herniation secondary to juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis.
We present the CT, MR, and autopsy findings of central brain herniation in a 9-year-old boy undergoing treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Severe cerebral edema resulting in central brain herniation is an uncommon complication of the treatment of DKA but carries with it high morbidity and mortality. Radiologic imaging and autopsy findings in this case revealed striking infarctions of central brain structures. (+info)
Surgical management of bacterial meningitis.
A variety of associated lesions may require the neurosurgeon's assistance in the management of bacterial meningitis. As treatment of this infection of the central nervous system proceeds, the surgeon will have to decide about the concurrent or subsequent operative treatment of congenital dysraphic states, paraneural infections, compound fractures or penetrating wounds of thecranium or spine, or infected bypass shunts for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In patients with intractable meningitic infections the surgeon may have to insert a ventricular drainage-irrigation system to permit adequate perfusion of the CSF pathways with antibiotic. Hydrocephalus or subdural effusions complicating meningitis may bring the patient to the surgeon long after the infection has been cured. This paper examines these problems and outlines the current principles of management. (+info)
Pregnancy in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis: report of five cases in three women.
Five cases of pregnancy occurring in three women with previously diagnosed Wegener's granulomatosis are described. The disease was diffuse in one case and localised in the other. Initial treatment consisted of a combination of corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide in two women, and methotrexate in one. Four pregnancies ended in live births despite pre-eclampsia in two cases. One therapeutic abortion was induced because of encephalocele. Comparable reported cases were reviewed to examine the implications of immunosuppressive treatment on the fetus. A relapse occurred during pregnancy in 40% of the cases, but in 25% if only pregnancies beginning during inactive disease were taken into account. No other indicator for maternal and fetal outcome was obvious. Pregnancy should be planned after complete disappearance of disease activity. In the case of a relapse a combination of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids should be chosen rather than corticosteroids alone because the outcome of pregnancy is poor in cases of undertreatment. Prematurity remains common. (+info)
Transtentorial herniation after unilateral infarction of the anterior cerebral artery.
BACKGROUND: Fatal cerebral herniation is a common complication of large ("malignant") middle cerebral artery infarcts but has not been reported in unilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarction. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a 47-year-old woman who developed an acute left hemiparesis during an attack of migraine. Cranial CT (CCT) was normal but demonstrated narrow external cerebrospinal fluid compartments. Transcranial Doppler sonography was compatible with occlusion of the right ACA. Systemic thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator was initiated 105 minutes after symptom onset. Follow-up CCT 24 hours after treatment revealed subtotal ACA infarction with hemorrhagic conversion. Two days later, the patient suddenly deteriorated with clinical signs of cerebral herniation, as confirmed by CCT. An extended right hemicraniectomy was immediately performed. Within 6 months, the patient regained her ability to walk but remained moderately disabled. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of unilateral ACA infarct leading to almost fatal cerebral herniation. Narrow external cerebrospinal fluid compartments in combination with early reperfusion, hemorrhagic transformation, and additional dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier promoted by tissue plasminogen activator and migraine may have contributed to this unusual course. (+info)
Fixed and dilated pupils after trauma, stroke, and previous intracranial surgery: management and outcome.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify whether different causative events (trauma, stroke, intracranial surgery), time of intervention, and treatment mode influence outcome, patients with fixed and dilated pupils (FDPs) in a prospective neurosurgical series were evaluated. METHODS: Ninety nine consecutive patients who presented with or developed one or two FDPs, were split into three groups according to the respective aetiology: 46 patients had a trauma, 41 patients a stroke (subarachnoid or intracerebral haemorrhage), and 12 patients had undergone previous elective intracranial surgery. Appropriate therapy was performed depending on the CT findings. Outcome was classified according to the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). RESULTS: Overall mortality was 75%. In 15% outcome was unfavourable (GOS 2 and 3), and in 10% favourable (GOS 4, 5) at 24 month follow up. No differences in outcome were found between trauma, stroke, and postelective surgery groups. Unilaterally FDP was associated with a better chance of survival (46% v 13%; p<0.01). Age did not correlate with survival, but younger survivors had a significantly better outcome. Patients in whom an intracranial mass was removed surgically had a 42% survival rate, compared with 8% with conservative treatment (p<0.01). Patients with a shorter delay from FDPs to intervention had a better chance of recovery after trauma and previous intracranial surgery (p<0.05). No patient survived better than a vegetative state, if previous FDPs did not become reactive shortly after therapy. If both pupils became reactive on therapy, the chance of survival was 62%. Of these survivors 42% had a favourable outcome. CONCLUSION: Bilateral restoration of pupillary reactivity shortly after therapy is crucial for survival. Surgical evacuation of an intracranial mass, unilateral FDPs, early intervention, and younger age are related to better chances of survival or recovery. The prognosis of patients with FDPs after trauma, stroke, and previous elective intracranial surgery is similar. (+info)