The severity of murray valley encephalitis in mice is linked to neutrophil infiltration and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in the central nervous system.
A study of immunopathology in the central nervous system (CNS) during infection with a virulent strain of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) in weanling Swiss mice following peripheral inoculation is presented. It has previously been shown that virus enters the murine CNS 4 days after peripheral inoculation, spreads to the anterior olfactory nucleus, the pyriform cortex, and the hippocampal formation at 5 days postinfection (p.i.), and then spreads throughout the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, thalamus, and brain stem between 6 and 9 days p.i. (P. C. McMinn, L. Dalgarno, and R. C. Weir, Virology 220:414-423, 1996). Here we show that the encephalitis which develops in MVE-infected mice from 5 days p.i. is associated with the development of a neutrophil inflammatory response in perivascular regions and in the CNS parenchyma. Infiltration of neutrophils into the CNS was preceded by increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and the neutrophil-attracting chemokine N51/KC within the CNS. Depletion of neutrophils with a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5) resulted in prolonged survival and decreased mortality in MVE-infected mice. In addition, neutrophil infiltration and disease onset correlated with expression of the enzyme-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within the CNS. Inhibition of iNOS by aminoguanidine resulted in prolonged survival and decreased mortality in MVE-infected mice. This study provides strong support for the hypothesis that Murray Valley encephalitis is primarily an immunopathological disease. (+info)
Characterization of infectious Murray Valley encephalitis virus derived from a stably cloned genome-length cDNA.
An infectious cDNA clone of Murray Valley encephalitis virus prototype strain 1-51 (MVE-1-51) was constructed by stably inserting genome-length cDNA into the low-copy-number plasmid vector pMC18. Designated pMVE-1-51, the clone consisted of genome-length cDNA of MVE-1-51 under the control of a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The clone was constructed by using existing components of a cDNA library, in addition to cDNA of the 3' terminus derived by RT-PCR of poly(A)-tailed viral RNA. Upon comparison with other flavivirus sequences, the previously undetermined sequence of the 3' UTR was found to contain elements conserved throughout the genus FLAVIVIRUS: RNA transcribed from pMVE-1-51 and subsequently transfected into BHK-21 cells generated infectious virus. The plaque morphology, replication kinetics and antigenic profile of clone-derived virus (CDV-1-51) was similar to the parental virus in vitro. Furthermore, the virulence properties of CDV-1-51 and MVE-1-51 (LD(50) values and mortality profiles) were found to be identical in vivo in the mouse model. Through site-directed mutagenesis, the infectious clone should serve as a valuable tool for investigating the molecular determinants of virulence in MVE virus. (+info)
Morphological features of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection in the central nervous system of Swiss mice.
We have examined the histological and ultrastructural features of CNS infection with Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus in mice inoculated with a virulent parental strain (BH3479). Light microscopic examination revealed neuronal necrosis in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of MVE-infected brains by 5 days post-infection (pi). Electron microscopy of these regions showed endoplasmic reticulum membrane proliferation, and tubular and spherical structures in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and nuclear envelope. At seven to eight days pi, infected neurones exhibited chromatin condensation and extrusion, nuclear fragmentation, loss of segments of the nuclear envelope, reduced surface contact with adjacent cells and loss of cytoplasmic organelles. This cell injury was particularly noticeable in the proximal CA3 and distal CA1 regions of the hippocampus. The inflammatory cell profile consisted of macrophages, lymphocytes and especially neutrophils, and many of these inflammatory cells were apoptotic. High mortality rates in the BH3479-infected population of mice correlated with the intense polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocyte inflammatory infiltrate in the CNS. (+info)
Stimulation of dengue virus replication in cultured Aedes albopictus (C6/36) mosquito cells by the antifungal imidazoles ketoconazole and miconazole.
Replication of dengue type 3 virus in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells was enhanced more than 50-fold by addition of the antifungal imidazole derivative ketoconazole within the first 4 h of infection. The stimulatory effect was reflected in the yield of infectious virus and in levels of viral RNA and protein synthesis. Enhanced yields were observed also for other flaviviruses, including dengue type 2 virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Increased yields of dengue type 3 virus were not observed in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, human monocytic (U-937) cells, or cells of the mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis (TRA-171). (+info)
Substitutions at the putative receptor-binding site of an encephalitic flavivirus alter virulence and host cell tropism and reveal a role for glycosaminoglycans in entry.
The flavivirus receptor-binding domain has been putatively assigned to a hydrophilic region (FG loop) in the envelope (E) protein. In some flaviviruses this domain harbors the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). One of us has shown earlier that host cell adaptation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) can result in the selection of attenuated variants altered at E protein residue Asp(390), which is part of an RGD motif. Here, a full-length, infectious cDNA clone of MVE was constructed and employed to systematically investigate the impact of single amino acid changes at Asp(390) on cell tropism, virus entry, and virulence. Each of 10 different E protein 390 mutants was viable. Three mutants (Gly(390), Ala(390), and His(390)) showed pronounced differences from an infectious clone-derived control virus in growth in mammalian and mosquito cells. The altered cell tropism correlated with (i) a difference in entry kinetics, (ii) an increased dependence on glycosaminoglycans (determined by inhibition of virus infectivity by heparin) for attachment of the three mutants to different mammalian cells, and (iii) the loss of virulence in mice. These results confirm a functional role of the FG loop in the flavivirus E protein in virus entry and suggest that encephalitic flaviviruses can enter cells via attachment to glycosaminoglycans. However, it appears that additional cell surface molecules are also used as receptors by natural isolates of MVE and that the increased dependence on glycosaminoglycans for entry results in the loss of neuroinvasiveness. (+info)
Innate resistance to flavivirus infection in mice controlled by Flv is nitric oxide-independent.
Innate resistance to flaviviruses in mice is active in the brain where it restricts virus replication. This resistance is controlled by a single genetic locus, FLV, located on mouse chromosome 5 near the locus encoding the neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (Nos1). Since nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in antiviral activity, its involvement in natural resistance to flaviviruses has been hypothesized. Here we present data on NO production before and during flavivirus infection in both brain tissue and peritoneal macrophages from two flavivirus-resistant (FLV(r)) and one congenic susceptible (FLV(s)) mouse strains. This study provides evidence that NO is not involved in the expression of flavivirus resistance controlled by FLV since: (a) there is no difference in brain tissue NO levels between susceptible and resistant mice, and (b) lipopolysaccharide-induced NO does not abrogate the difference in flavivirus replication in peritoneal macrophages from susceptible and resistant mice. (+info)
Antiviral cytotoxic T cells cross-reactively recognize disparate peptide determinants from related viruses but ignore more similar self- and foreign determinants.
We have investigated the reactivities of cytotoxic T (Tc) cells against the two immunodominant, H-2K(k)-restricted determinants from the FLAVIVIRUS: Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE), MVE(1785) (REHSGNEI) and MVE(1971) (DEGEGRVI). The respective Tc cell populations cross-reactively lysed target cells pulsed with determinants from the MVE(1785)- and MVE(1971)-corresponding positions of six other flaviviruses, despite low sequence homology in some cases. Notably, anti-MVE(1785) Tc cells recognized a determinant (TDGEERVI) that shares with the determinant used for stimulation only the carboxyl-terminal amino acid residue, one of two H-2K(k) anchor residues. These reactivity patterns were also observed in peptide-dependent IFN-gamma production and the requirements for in vitro restimulation of memory Tc cells. However, the broad cross-reactivity appeared to be limited to flavivirus-derived determinants, as none of a range of determinants from endogenous mouse-derived sequences, similar to the MVE-determinants, were recognized. Neither were cells infected with a number of unrelated viruses recognized. These results raise the paradox that virus-immune Tc cell responses, which are mostly directed against only a few "immunodominant" viral determinants, are remarkably peptide cross-reactive. (+info)
Attenuation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus by site-directed mutagenesis of the hinge and putative receptor-binding regions of the envelope protein.
Molecular determinants of virulence in flaviviruses cluster in two regions on the three-dimensional structure of the envelope (E) protein; the base of domain II, believed to serve as a hinge during pH-dependent conformational change in the endosome, and the lateral face of domain III, which contains an integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) in mosquito-borne flaviviruses and is believed to form the receptor-binding site of the protein. In an effort to better understand the nature of attenuation caused by mutations in these two regions, a full-length infectious cDNA clone of Murray Valley encephalitis virus prototype strain 1-51 (MVE-1-51) was employed to produce a panel of site-directed mutants with substitutions at amino acid positions 277 (E-277; hinge region) or 390 (E-390; RGD motif). Viruses with mutations at E-277 (Ser-->Ile, Ser-->Asn, Ser-->Val, and Ser-->Pro) showed various levels of in vitro and in vivo attenuation dependent on the level of hydrophobicity of the substituted amino acid. Altered hemagglutination activity observed for these viruses suggests that mutations in the hinge region may indirectly disrupt the receptor-ligand interaction, possibly by causing premature release of the virion from the endosomal membrane prior to fusion. Similarly, viruses with mutations at E-390 (Asp-->Asn, Asp-->Glu, and Asp-->Tyr) were also attenuated in vitro and in vivo; however, the absorption and penetration rates of these viruses were similar to those of wild-type virus. This, coupled with the fact that E-390 mutant viruses were only moderately inhibited by soluble heparin, suggests that RGD-dependent integrin binding is not essential for entry of MVE and that multiple and/or alternate receptors may be involved in cell entry. (+info)