The severity of murray valley encephalitis in mice is linked to neutrophil infiltration and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in the central nervous system.
A study of immunopathology in the central nervous system (CNS) during infection with a virulent strain of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) in weanling Swiss mice following peripheral inoculation is presented. It has previously been shown that virus enters the murine CNS 4 days after peripheral inoculation, spreads to the anterior olfactory nucleus, the pyriform cortex, and the hippocampal formation at 5 days postinfection (p.i.), and then spreads throughout the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, thalamus, and brain stem between 6 and 9 days p.i. (P. C. McMinn, L. Dalgarno, and R. C. Weir, Virology 220:414-423, 1996). Here we show that the encephalitis which develops in MVE-infected mice from 5 days p.i. is associated with the development of a neutrophil inflammatory response in perivascular regions and in the CNS parenchyma. Infiltration of neutrophils into the CNS was preceded by increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and the neutrophil-attracting chemokine N51/KC within the CNS. Depletion of neutrophils with a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5) resulted in prolonged survival and decreased mortality in MVE-infected mice. In addition, neutrophil infiltration and disease onset correlated with expression of the enzyme-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within the CNS. Inhibition of iNOS by aminoguanidine resulted in prolonged survival and decreased mortality in MVE-infected mice. This study provides strong support for the hypothesis that Murray Valley encephalitis is primarily an immunopathological disease. (+info)
Loss of dimerisation of the nonstructural protein NS1 of Kunjin virus delays viral replication and reduces virulence in mice, but still allows secretion of NS1.
The flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 has been implicated in viral RNA replication, although its precise role has not been identified. In its native state NS1 exists as a heat labile homodimer that is thought to be required for NS1 function and secretion. However, we have recently identified a cDNA clone of KUN virus (FLSD) that replicates efficiently in cell culture but produces and secretes NS1 in monomeric form. Sequence analysis of the NS1 gene in FLSD revealed a single amino acid substitution (proline(250) to leucine) when compared with the parental KUN virus. When site-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute leucine(250) with proline in FLSD to produce the clone 250pro, dimerisation was fully restored. Furthermore, time course experiments revealed that 250pro replicated in Vero cells significantly faster than FLSD and produced 100-fold more infectious virus early (12-24 h) in infection. This correlated with our observations that FLSD required approximately 10-fold more infectious virus than 250pro to produce disease in weanling mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Taken together our results indicate that mutation from proline to leucine at residue 250 in KUN NS1 ablates dimer formation, slows virus replication, and reduces virulence in mice. (+info)
Characterization of infectious Murray Valley encephalitis virus derived from a stably cloned genome-length cDNA.
An infectious cDNA clone of Murray Valley encephalitis virus prototype strain 1-51 (MVE-1-51) was constructed by stably inserting genome-length cDNA into the low-copy-number plasmid vector pMC18. Designated pMVE-1-51, the clone consisted of genome-length cDNA of MVE-1-51 under the control of a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The clone was constructed by using existing components of a cDNA library, in addition to cDNA of the 3' terminus derived by RT-PCR of poly(A)-tailed viral RNA. Upon comparison with other flavivirus sequences, the previously undetermined sequence of the 3' UTR was found to contain elements conserved throughout the genus FLAVIVIRUS: RNA transcribed from pMVE-1-51 and subsequently transfected into BHK-21 cells generated infectious virus. The plaque morphology, replication kinetics and antigenic profile of clone-derived virus (CDV-1-51) was similar to the parental virus in vitro. Furthermore, the virulence properties of CDV-1-51 and MVE-1-51 (LD(50) values and mortality profiles) were found to be identical in vivo in the mouse model. Through site-directed mutagenesis, the infectious clone should serve as a valuable tool for investigating the molecular determinants of virulence in MVE virus. (+info)
Morphological features of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection in the central nervous system of Swiss mice.
We have examined the histological and ultrastructural features of CNS infection with Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus in mice inoculated with a virulent parental strain (BH3479). Light microscopic examination revealed neuronal necrosis in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of MVE-infected brains by 5 days post-infection (pi). Electron microscopy of these regions showed endoplasmic reticulum membrane proliferation, and tubular and spherical structures in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and nuclear envelope. At seven to eight days pi, infected neurones exhibited chromatin condensation and extrusion, nuclear fragmentation, loss of segments of the nuclear envelope, reduced surface contact with adjacent cells and loss of cytoplasmic organelles. This cell injury was particularly noticeable in the proximal CA3 and distal CA1 regions of the hippocampus. The inflammatory cell profile consisted of macrophages, lymphocytes and especially neutrophils, and many of these inflammatory cells were apoptotic. High mortality rates in the BH3479-infected population of mice correlated with the intense polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocyte inflammatory infiltrate in the CNS. (+info)
Serological diagnosis of California (La Crosse) encephalitis by immunofluorescence.
A method of indirect immunofluorescence was developed and examined retrospectively as a serological test for the laboratory diagnosis of California encephalitis (CE). LaCrosse virus immunofluorescence immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM studies were done on paired sera from 50 patients with acute central nervous system infections. CE had been documented in 25 patients by hemagglutination inhibition, neutralizing, complement fixing, and/or precipitin tests. Five (20%) of the acute and 16 (64%) of the convalescent sera from CE patients had La Crosse IgM antibodies. Seven (28%) of the acute and all of the convalescent CE specimens had La Crosse IgG antibodies. Titers ranged from less than 4 to 256. IgG antibodies were present in all 11 sera collected 1 to 2 years after CE, but IgM antibodies were absent. The 25 serum pairs from patients who did not have CE were negative for IgM and IgG antibodies. This study indicated that La Crosse immunofluorescence antibody tests were as sensitive and specific for CE as conventional hemagglutination-inhibition tests, and would detect at least 20% of patients during their acute illness. (+info)
Innate resistance to flavivirus infection in mice controlled by Flv is nitric oxide-independent.
Innate resistance to flaviviruses in mice is active in the brain where it restricts virus replication. This resistance is controlled by a single genetic locus, FLV, located on mouse chromosome 5 near the locus encoding the neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (Nos1). Since nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in antiviral activity, its involvement in natural resistance to flaviviruses has been hypothesized. Here we present data on NO production before and during flavivirus infection in both brain tissue and peritoneal macrophages from two flavivirus-resistant (FLV(r)) and one congenic susceptible (FLV(s)) mouse strains. This study provides evidence that NO is not involved in the expression of flavivirus resistance controlled by FLV since: (a) there is no difference in brain tissue NO levels between susceptible and resistant mice, and (b) lipopolysaccharide-induced NO does not abrogate the difference in flavivirus replication in peritoneal macrophages from susceptible and resistant mice. (+info)
Demonstration of Akabane virus antigen using immunohistochemistry in naturally infected newborn calves.
Eight newborn calves showing ataxia were necropsied and examined histologically. Six of seven cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from these animals had neutralizing antibody for Akabane virus (AKV). All examined calves had nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, localized mainly in the midbrain and spinal cord. Corresponding to the encephalitic lesion, AKV antigen was demonstrated in neuroglial cells in the brain stem and neuronal cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. This is the first study to demonstrate AKV antigen by immunohistochemistry in naturally infected newborn calves. (+info)
Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.
Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector-borne diseases exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern, which clearly suggests that they are weather sensitive. Rainfall, temperature, and other weather variables affect in many ways both the vectors and the pathogens they transmit. For example, high temperatures can increase or reduce survival rate, depending on the vector, its behavior, ecology, and many other factors. Thus, the probability of transmission may or may not be increased by higher temperatures. The tremendous growth in international travel increases the risk of importation of vector-borne diseases, some of which can be transmitted locally under suitable circumstances at the right time of the year. But demographic and sociologic factors also play a critical role in determining disease incidence, and it is unlikely that these diseases will cause major epidemics in the United States if the public health infrastructure is maintained and improved. (+info)