Health profiles, lifestyles and use of health resources by the immigrant population resident in Spain.
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed at describing the health profiles, life styles and use of health resources by the immigrant population resident in Spain. METHODS: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2003. We analysed 1506 subjects of both sexes, aged > or =16 years, resident in Spain. RESULTS: The immigrant population present diseases that are similar to those of the autochthonous population. The autochthonous population had significantly higher values for alcohol consumption and smoking (60.8 and 39.6%) than immigrants (39.6 and 27.5%). The percentage of immigrants hospitalized in the preceding 12 months was observed to be higher than that of the Spanish population (11.4 vs. 8.2%, P < 0.05). The immigrant population consumed fewer medical drugs than the Spanish population (42.6 and 49.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Immigrants in Spain display better lifestyle-related parameters, in that they consume less alcohol and smoke less than the autochthonous population. As for the use of health-care resources, while immigrants register higher percentages of hospitalization compared with the Spanish population, there is no evidence of excessive and inappropriate use of other health-care resources. (+info)
Motivation and relevance of emergency room visits among immigrants and patients of Danish origin.
BACKGROUND: We investigated the extent to which immigrants and patients of Danish origin have different motivations for seeking emergency room (ER) treatment, and differences in the relevance of their claims. METHODS: Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of walk-in patients and their caregivers at four Copenhagen ERs. The patient survey was available in nine languages, and addressed patient-identified reasons for using the ER. Caregivers were asked if the claim was appropriate to the ER. 3809 patients and 3905 caregivers responded. The response rate among patients was 54%. Only questionnaires in which both patient and caregiver had responded, and in which data on the patient's nationality were available, were included in the analyses (n = 3426). The effect of region of origin was examined using bivariate, stratified analyses and tested for independence. RESULTS: More among immigrant patients than among patients of Danish origin had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER, and more immigrants reported going to the ER because they could not contact a general practitioner, or could not explain their problem on the telephone. Compared to immigrants, more patients of Danish origin explained that the ER was most relevant to their need. A higher proportion of claims among immigrants were seen by caregivers as not being appropriate to the ER. CONCLUSION: Migrants have more irrelevant ER claims, presumably because of barriers in access to primary care. Access to primary care should be facilitated for these groups. Alternatively, ERs could include primary care activities as part of their services. (+info)
Psychiatric disorders and labor market outcomes: evidence from the National Latino and Asian American Study.
This paper investigates to what extent psychiatric disorders and mental distress affect labor market outcomes in two rapidly growing populations that have not been studied to date-ethnic minorities of Latino and Asian descent, most of whom are immigrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine the labor market effects of meeting diagnostic criteria for any psychiatric disorder in the past 12 months as well as the effects of psychiatric distress in the past year. The labor market outcomes analyzed are current employment status, the number of weeks worked in the past year among those who are employed, and having at least one work absence in the past month among those who are employed. Among Latinos, psychiatric disorders and mental distress are associated with detrimental effects on employment and absenteeism, similar to effects found in previous analyses of mostly white, American born populations. Among Asians, we find more mixed evidence that psychiatric disorders and mental distress detract from labor market outcomes. Our findings suggest that reducing disparities and expanding access to effective treatment may have significant labor market benefits-not just for majority populations, as has been demonstrated, but also for Asians and Latinos. (+info)
Treatment seeking for alcohol and drug use disorders by immigrants to the Netherlands: retrospective, population-based, cohort study.
BACKGROUND: We compared risks of first contact with services for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug use disorder (DUD) between the largest immigrant groups to the Netherlands and Dutch nationals. We tested the hypothesis that the ethnic pattern for DUD is similar to the previously demonstrated pattern for schizophrenia. METHODS: Retrospective, population-based cohort study of First Admissions to Dutch psychiatric hospitals during the period 1990-1996 (national data) and First Contacts with inpatient or outpatient centres in Rotterdam for treatment of AUD or DUD during the period 1992-2001 (Rotterdam data). RESULTS: In both datasets the risk of service contact for AUD was significantly lower in immigrants from Surinam, Turkey and Morocco than in Dutch nationals. The risk was lower or moderately higher in immigrants from western countries. Analysis of the national data showed that, compared with Dutch males, the risk of first hospital admission for DUD was higher for male immigrants from the Dutch Antilles (RR = 4.6; 95% CI: 4.0-5.3), Surinam (RR = 4.3; 3.9-4.7) and Morocco (RR = 2.3; 2.0-2.6), but not for male immigrants from Turkey (RR = 0.9; 0.7-1.1). A similar pattern was found with the Rotterdam data. Female immigrants from Surinam and the Dutch Antilles had a higher risk for DUD according to the national data, but a lower risk according to the Rotterdam data. Female immigrants from Turkey and Morocco had a lower risk (both datasets). Immigrants from western countries had a higher risk for DUD, but many had developed the disorder before emigrating. CONCLUSION: Those immigrant groups in the Netherlands that are at increased risk of schizophrenia appear also at increased risk of developing DUD, but not AUD. (+info)
Rubella immune status of indigenous and immigrant pregnant women in Catalonia, Spain.
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of rubella antibodies in representative samples of pregnant women in Catalonia. METHODS: A representative sample of pregnant women in Catalonia was obtained by random sampling by clusters (hospitals with maternity units) stratified by provinces. Blood was obtained from the umbilical cord at childbirth in 1538 women (of whom 308 were immigrants) and was tested for rubella antibodies by ELISA (Enzime-linked immunosorbent assay). RESULTS: The global prevalence of antibodies was 93.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 93.3-93.5] and was significantly higher in indigenous women (94.9;95%CI:93.3-95.9) compared with immigrants [89.0; 95%CI: 85.5-92.5 (P<0. 0001)] with crude Odds ratio (OR) of 2.15 (95%CI: 1.40-3.32).The prevalence was higher in women living in rural habitats (97%) and those in higher social classes (96.3%); OR 2.54 (95%CI: 1.22-5.30) and 2.17 (95%CI: 1.24-3.81), respectively. CONCLUSION: Fertile female immigrants from countries with no vaccination or where vaccination coverage is low should be actively approached for vaccination to reduce the risk of infection and congenital rubella. (+info)
Tuberculosis drug resistance and HIV infection, the Netherlands.
In the Netherlands during 1993-2001, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among newly diagnosed patients was more frequent in those with HIV coinfection (5/308, 1.6%) than in those with no HIV infection (39/646, 0.6%; adjusted odds ratio 3.43, p=0.015). Four of the 5 patients coinfected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV were foreign-born. DNA fingerprint analysis suggested that transmission had occurred outside the Netherlands. (+info)
Selective international migration by social position, health behaviour and personality.
BACKGROUND: Immigrants is an important minority in many countries, but little is known how they are self-selected. We analysed differences in psycho-social and health behavioural factors between international migrants and non-migrants prior to migration in a large cohort of Finnish twins. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins in 1975 (response rate 89%, N = 26555 twin individuals). Follow-up data on migration and mortality were derived from population registries in Finland and Sweden up to 31 March 2002. In 1998, another questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins migrated to Sweden and their co-twins (response rate 71%, N = 1534 twin individuals). The data were analysed using Cox and conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Life dissatisfaction, higher alcohol use and smoking at baseline predicted future migration. In men additionally, unemployment, neuroticism and extroversion increased the probability to migrate. Similar associations were found for alcohol use in men and smoking in men and women within twin pairs discordant for migration. Twins also reported retrospectively that prior to migration the migrated twin had been less satisfied with his/her educational institution or job and was generally less satisfied with life, used more alcohol (men) and smoked more (women) than the co-twin stayed in Finland. CONCLUSION: Migrants are self-selected by health behavioural and personality factors, which may compromise their health. The special requirements of migrants should be recognized in health care. (+info)
Health coverage of low-income citizen and noncitizen wage earners: sources and disparities.
The health coverage of low-income workers represents an area of continuing disparities in the United States system of health insurance. Using the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, we estimate the effect of low-income wage earners' citizenship and gender on the odds of obtaining primary employment-based health insurance (EBHI), dependent EBHI, public program coverage, and coverage from any source. We find that noncitizen men and women who comprise 40% of California's low-income workforce, share the disadvantage of much lower rates of insurance coverage, compared to naturalized and U.S.-born citizens. However, poor coverage rates of noncitizen men, regardless of permanent residency status, result from the cumulative disadvantage in obtaining dependent EBHI and public insurance. If public policies designed to provide a health care safety net fail to address the health care coverage needs of low-wage noncitizens, health disparities will continue to increase in this group that contributes essentially to the U.S. economy. (+info)