Semiautomated metabolic staining assay for Bacillus cereus emetic toxin.
This paper describes a specific, sensitive, semiautomated, and quantitative Hep-2 cell culture-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for Bacillus cereus emetic toxin. Of nine Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Paenibacillus species assessed for emetic toxin production, only B. cereus was cytotoxic. (+info)
Gastric decontamination--a view for the millennium.
The management of acute poisoning remains an important part of accident and emergency (A&E) care. Three gastric decontamination procedures have been widely used: gastric lavage, ipecac, and activated charcoal. Their role has recently been reviewed and position statements developed by working groups of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. These have important implications for A&E, as they indicate that activated charcoal is now the agent of choice for most poisons, but than in most situations it is probably only effective if given within an hour of overdose. Ipecac is effectively obsolete and gastric lavage has a narrow range of indications, principally for potentially serious amounts of agents not adsorbed by charcoal. Protocols for care of overdose patients should be modified accordingly. (+info)
Synthesis and gastrointestinal prokinetic activity of novel benzamide derivatives with amphoteric side chains.
Novel benzamide derivatives (19-24, 32a-c, 43d-f), each possessing a cycloaminoalkanecarboxylic acid side chain, were synthesized and their gastrointestinal prokinetic and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist activities were evaluated. 4-[(4-Amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoyl)amino]-1-piperidineacetic acid (19) exhibited the most potent gastro- and colon-prokinetic activities, through intravenous administration to conscious dogs, and also showed the reduced dopamine D2 receptor antagonistic activity. However, 19 showed only weak gastrointestinal prokinetic activity after oral administration. Several ester prodrugs (44-62) of 19 were tested for pharmacological activities as well as physicochemical and metabolic stability; the butyl ester (46) was consequently selected as a promising gastrointestinal prokinetic agent with reduced side effects. (+info)
Metabolism of ipecac alkaloids cephaeline and emetine by human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s, and their inhibitory effects on P450 enzyme activities.
In this study, we identified the metabolites and the CYP forms that are specifically involved in emetine O-demethylation in human liver microsomes, and cleared the inhibitory potential of cephaeline and emetine on the activity of the major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes. Incubation of emetine with human liver microsomes yielded three metabolites identified by using HPLC by comparison of the retention time with the authentic sample of cephaeline, 9-O-demethylemetine and 10-O-demethylemetine. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were able to metabolize emetine to cephaeline and 9-O-demethylemetine, and CYP3A4 also participated in metabolizing emetine to 10-O-demethylemetine. Cephaeline and emetine inhibited probe substrates metabolism. IC50 for cephaeline against CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were 121 and 1000 microM, respectively. For the emetine, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were 80 and 480 microM, respectively. Inhibition constants (Ki) for both compounds on the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities were determined by graphic analysis of Dixon plots at various concentrations. The obtained Ki values of cephaeline for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were 54 and 355 microM, respectively, and the values of emetine were 43 and 232 microM, respectively. We concluded that these in vitro inhibitions of cephaeline and emetine would hardly increase plasma concentrations of co-administered drugs in clinical therapy. (+info)
Role of catecholamines in the central mechanism of emetic response induced by peruvoside and ouabain in cats.
1 Peruvoside, (a glycoside obtained from the plant, Thevetia neriifolia Juss) and ouabain produce emesis in cats. Vomiting is not produced by these drugs in animals pretreated with catecholamine depleting drugs like reserpine, tetrabenazine or syrosingopine. Chloropromazine hydrochloride, mepyramine maleate, or BOL-148 administered intravenously or intracerebro-ventricularly do not afford protection.2 Phenoxybenzamine produces partial protection against peruvoside-induced emesis.3 Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.v.) prevents vomiting induced by peruvoside or ouabain. Intracerebroventricularly administered haloperidol is ineffective.4 Cats pretreated with SKF-525-A, are not protected by haloperidol. Animals pretreated with phenobarbitone in a dose of 25 mg/kg for a week were protected by haloperidol, 250 mug/kg i.e. one quarter of the effective antiemetic dose in normal cats.5 It is postulated that catecholamines are involved in the mechanism of vomiting induced by cardiac gycosides. Further, a metabolite of haloperidol seems to be responsible for its effective antiemetic action. (+info)
The potent emetogenic effects of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) are blocked by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannnabinoids.
Cannabinoids, including the endogenous cannabinoid or endocannabinoid, anandamide, modulate several gastrointestinal functions. To date, the gastrointestinal effects of the second putative endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) have not been studied. In the present study using a shrew (Cryptotis parva) emetic model, 2-AG (0.25-10 mg/kg, i.p.) potently and dose-dependently increased vomiting frequency (ED(50) = 1.13 mg/kg) and the number of animals vomiting (ED(50) = 0.48 mg/kg). In contrast, neither anandamide (2.5-20 mg/kg) nor methanandamide (5-10 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent emetogenic response, but both could partially block the induced emetic effects. Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and its synthetic analogs reduced 2-AG-induced vomiting with the rank order potency: CP 55,940 > WIN 55,212-2 > Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. The nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, was inactive. Nonemetic doses of SR 141716A (1-5 mg/kg) also blocked 2-AG-induced vomiting. The 2-AG metabolite arachidonic acid also caused vomiting. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, blocked the emetogenic effects of both arachidonic acid and 2-AG. CP 55,940 also blocked the emetic effects of arachidonic acid. 2-AG (0.25-10 mg/kg) reduced spontaneous locomotor activity (ED(50) = 11 mg/kg) and rearing frequency (ED(50) = 4.3 mg/kg) in the shrew, whereas such doses of both anandamide and methanandamide had no effect on locomotor parameters. The present study indicates that: 1) 2-AG is an efficacious endogenous emetogenic cannabinoid involved in vomiting circuits, 2) the emetic action of 2-AG and the antiemetic effects of tested cannabinoids are mediated via CB(1) receptors, and 3) the emetic effects of 2-AG occur in lower doses relative to its locomotor suppressant actions. (+info)
Pharmacology of N-(3,5-dichloro-1-oxido-4-pyridinyl)-8-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-5-quinoline carboxamide (SCH 351591), a novel, orally active phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor.
N-(3,5-Dichloro-1-oxido-4-pyridinyl)-8-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-5-quinoline carboxamide (SCH 351591) has been identified as a potent (IC(50) = 58 nM) and highly selective type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitor with oral bioactivity in several animal models of lung inflammation. N-(3,5-Dichloro-4-pyridinyl)-8-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-5-quinoline carboxamide (SCH 365351), the only significant in vivo metabolite, is also a potent and highly selective PDE4 inhibitor (IC(50) = 20 nM). Both SCH 351591 and SCH 365351 inhibited cytokine production in human blood mononuclear cell preparations. Oral SCH 351591 significantly attenuated allergen-induced eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity in allergic guinea pigs at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. In this model, oral SCH 365351 showed similar potency. When SCH 351591 was administered orally to allergic cynomolgus monkeys at 3 mg/kg, Ascaris suum-induced lung eosinophilia was blocked. Hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm in nonallergic guinea pigs, a model for exercise-induced asthma, was also suppressed significantly by oral SCH 351591 at 0.3 mg/kg. Cilomilast (SB 207499; Ariflo), a PDE4 inhibitor currently being developed for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was 10- to 30-fold less potent than SCH 351591 at inhibiting guinea pig lung eosinophilia and hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm. In a ferret model of emesis, maximum nonemetic oral doses of SCH 351591 and cilomilast were 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Comparison of plasma levels at these nonemetic doses in ferrets to those at doses inhibiting hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs gave a therapeutic ratio of 16 for SCH 351591 and 4 for cilomilast. Thus, SCH 351591 exhibits a promising preclinical profile as a treatment for asthma and COPD. (+info)
Studies for the emetic mechanisms of ipecac syrup (TJN-119) and its active components in ferrets: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors.
Ipecac syrup, prepared from a galentical ipecac, contains the nauseant alkaloids cephaeline and emetine. The involvement of receptors and serotonin- and dopamine-metabolizing enzymes in the emesis induced by ipecac syrup and these components was investigated. 1) In ferrets, the selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented each emesis induced by TJN-119 (0.5 mL/kg, p.o.), cephaeline (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) and emetine (5.0 mg/kg, p.o.), but the intraperitoneal administration of the selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride failed to significantly suppress the TJN-119, cephaeline and emetine-induced emesis at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg that blocked apomorphine-induced emesis. 2) In the receptor binding assays, cephaeline and emetine had a distinct affinity to 5-HT4 receptor, but no or weak affinity to 5-HT1A, 5-HT3, nicotine, M3, beta1, NK1, and D2 receptors. 3) Cephaeline and emetine did not affect activities of metabolic enzymes of 5-HT and dopamine (MAO-A, MAO-B, tryptophan 5-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase) in vitro. These results suggest that 5-HT3 receptor plays an important role in the emetic action of TJN-119, cephaeline and emetine, and the 5-HT4 receptor may be involved in their mechanisms. (+info)