(1/111) Surgical patent foramen ovale closure for prevention of paradoxical embolism-related cerebrovascular ischemic events.
BACKGROUND: The role of surgical closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) for cerebral infarction (CI) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) resulting from paradoxical embolism is unclear, and its effect on recurrence is unknown. Our objective was to determine the outcome of surgical closure of PFO in patients with a prior ischemic neurological event, define the rate of CI or TIA recurrence after PFO closure, and identify risk factors for these recurrences. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients (58 men, 33 women) with >/=1 previous cerebrovascular ischemic events who underwent surgical PFO closure between April 1982 and March 1998. The presence of a PFO with a right-to-left shunt was confirmed with transesophageal echocardiography. Mean age was 44.2+/-12.2 years. The index event was a CI in 59 and a TIA in 32; a Valsalva-like episode preceded the event in 15 patients. Deep venous thrombosis was documented in 9 patients, and a hypercoagulable state was identified in 10. Surgical closure was performed with extracorporeal circulation by either direct suture (n=82) or patch closure (n=9). Limited incisions were used in 18.7% of patients. There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included transient atrial fibrillation (n=11), pericardial drainage for effusion (n=4), exploration for bleeding (n=3), and superficial wound infection (n=1). Follow-up totaled 176.3 patient-years, and mean follow-up was 2.0 years. No one had a CI, and 8 had a TIA during follow-up, with 1 caused by temporal arteritis. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated all closures to be intact in these patients. The overall freedom from TIA recurrence during follow-up was 92.5+/-3.2% at 1 year and 83.4+/-6.0% at 4 years. Having multiple neurological events before PFO closure was the only significant risk factor for TIA or CI recurrence after closure by univariate analysis (P=0.05); the small number of post-PFO closure cerebral ischemic events precluded multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical closure of PFO can be performed with minimal morbidity and mortality. PFO closure may decrease the risk of recurrent stroke or TIA and may avoid lifelong anticoagulation in the young adult if there is no other indication. Recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic events after surgery should prompt further evaluation to identify causes other than paradoxical embolism. (+info)
(2/111) Paradoxical embolism in a boy with cystic fibrosis and a stroke.
An 11 year old boy with cystic fibrosis suffered a stroke, producing right sided weakness. Four years previously a totally implantable venous access device (Port-a-Cath) had been inserted. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a filling defect in the left middle cerebral artery. Transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated a thrombus attached to the tip of the Port-a-Cath and also the presence of a patent foramen ovale. After an initial period of anticoagulation the defect was closed using a septal occlusion device introduced via a cardiac catheter. The boy's neurological signs completely resolved and he remains free from further thromboembolic episodes. Whilst pulmonary embolism has been described before in relation to a totally implantable venous access device, this is believed to be the first description of a paradoxical embolism in relation to such a device. (+info)
(3/111) Transthoracic echocardiography using second harmonic imaging: diagnostic alternative to transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of atrial right to left shunt in patients with cerebral embolic events.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate whether transthoracic contrast echocardiography using second harmonic imaging (SHI) is a diagnostic alternative to transesophageal contrast echocardiography (TEE) for the detection of atrial right to left shunt. BACKGROUND: Paradoxic embolism is considered to be the major cause of cerebral ischemic events in young patients. Contrast echocardiography using TEE has proven to be superior to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the detection of atrial shunting, SHI is a new imaging modality that enhances the visualization of echocardiographic contrast agents. METHODS: We evaluated 111 patients with an ischemic cerebral embolic event for the presence of atrial right to left shunt using an intravenous (IV) contrast agent in combination with three different echocardiographic imaging modalities: 1) TTE using fundamental imaging (FI); 2) TTE using SHI; and 3) TEE. The severity of atrial shunting and the duration of contrast visibility within the left heart chambers were evaluated for each imaging modality. Image quality was assessed separately for each modality by semiquantitative scoring (0 = poor to 3 = excellent). Presence of atrial right to left shunt was defined as detection of contrast bubbles in the left atrium within the first three cardiac cycles after contrast appearance in the right atrium either spontaneously or after the Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients showed evidence of atrial right to left shunt with either imaging modality. Fifty-one studies were positive with TEE, 52 studies were positive with SHI, and 32 were positive with FI (p<0.001 for FI vs. SHI and TEE). The severity of contrast passage was significantly larger using SHI (61.6+/-80.2 bubbles) compared to FI (53.7+/-69.6 bubbles; p<0.005 vs. SHI) but was not different compared to TEE (43.9+/-54.3 bubbles; p = NS vs. SHI). The duration of contrast visibility was significantly longer for SHI (17.4+/-12.4 s) compared to FI (13.1+/-9.7 s; p<0.001) and TEE (11.9+/-9.6 s; p<0.02). Mean image quality improved significantly from FI (1.5+/-0.8) to SHI (2.0+/-0.8; p<0.001 vs. FI) and TEE (2.5+/-0.7; p<0.001 vs. SHI). CONCLUSIONS: In combination with IV contrast injections, TEE and SHI have a comparable yield for the detection of atrial right to left shunt. Both modalities may miss patients with atrial shunting. In young patients with an unexplained cerebrovascular event and no clinical evidence of cardiac disease, a positive SHI study may obviate the need to perform a TEE study to search for cardiac sources of emboli. (+info)
(4/111) Transcranial Doppler of a paradoxical brain embolism associated with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula.
We herein report the case of a patient who had paradoxical brain embolism owing to a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) who was diagnosed as having a right-to-left shunt by transcranial Doppler (TCD) with saline contrast medium. TCD with saline contrast medium failed to detect any high-intensity transient signals immediately after catheter embolization of the PAVF. Thus, TCD with saline contrast medium was useful for identifying the presence of a right-to-left shunt and for confirming that the shunt had been obliterated after endovascular treatment. (+info)
(5/111) Closure of patent foramen ovale for paradoxical emboli: intermediate-term risk of recurrent neurological events following transcatheter device placement.
OBJECTIVES: We report the largest and the longest follow-up to date of patients who underwent transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for paradoxical embolism. BACKGROUND: Closure of a PFO has been proposed as an alternative to anticoagulation in patients with presumed paradoxical emboli. METHODS: Data were collected for patients following PFO closure with the Clamshell, CardioSEAL or Buttoned Devices at two institutions. RESULTS: There were 63 patients (46 +/- 18 years) with a follow-up of 2.6 +/- 2.4 years. Fifty-four (86%) had effective closure of the foramen ovale (trivial or no residual shunt by echocardiography) while seven (11%) had mild and two (3%) had moderate residual shunting. There were four deaths (leukemia, pulmonary embolism, sepsis following a hip fracture and lung cancer). There were four recurrent embolic neurological events following device placement: one stroke and three transient events. The stroke occurred in a 56-year-old patient six months following device placement. A follow-up transesophageal echocardiogram showed a well seated device without residual shunting. Two of the four events were associated with suboptimal device performance (one patient had a significant residual shunt and a second patient had a "friction lesion" in the left atrial wall associated with a displaced fractured device arm). The risk of recurrent stroke or transient neurological event following device placement was 3.2% per year for all patients. CONCLUSION: Transcatheter closure of PFO is an alternative therapy for paradoxical emboli in selected patients. Improved device performance may reduce the risk of recurrent neurological events. Further studies are needed to identify patients most likely to benefit from this intervention. (+info)
(6/111) Paradoxical emboli after central venous catheter removal.
Central venous catheters are widely used in intensive medicine to provide blood product, nutritional and antibiotic support. A 45-year-old man with an unsuspected patent foramen ovale underwent a bone marrow allograft for poor-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. His venous line was removed because of probable infection, and he simultaneously sustained a myocardial infarct and a cerebrovascular accident. He made a good recovery from both, but subsequently died of relapsed disease. Appropriate pre-transplant screening investigations are discussed, and the differential diagnosis of this complication in the bone marrow transplant setting. (+info)
(7/111) Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography as a screening technique for detection of a patent foramen ovale before surgery in the sitting position.
BACKGROUND: Venous air embolism has been reported to occur in 23-45% of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position. If venous air embolism occurs, a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a risk factor for paradoxical air embolism and its sequelae. Preoperative screening for a PFO is therefore recommended by some investigators. The reference standard for identifying a PFO is contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (c-TEE). Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (c-TCD) and contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography (c-TTE) are noninvasive alternative methods, but so far there are no studies as to their diagnostic validity in neurosurgical patients. METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of c-TCD and c-TTE in detecting a PFO were determined in a prospective study using c-TEE as the reference standard. Preoperative c-TCD, c-TTE, and c-TEE studies were performed during the Valsalva maneuver after intravenous echo-contrast medium (D-Galactose, Echovist-300, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) was administered in 92 consecutive candidates (47 men and 45 women; mean age, 51 yr; range, 25-72 yr) before neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position. RESULTS: A PFO was detected in 24 of the 92 patients (26.0%) using c-TEE. c-TCD correctly identified 22 patients, whereas c-TTE only correctly identified 10. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 0.92 for c-TCD and 0.42 for c-TTE. The negative predictive value was 0.97 for c-TCD compared with 0.83 for c-TTE. The prevalence of a PFO in patients with a posterior fossa lesion was 27%, and in the group with cervical disc herniation was 24% as detected by c-TEE. The incidence of intraoperative venous air embolism was 35% in cases of cervical foraminotomy and 75% in posterior fossa surgery as detected by c-TEE. CONCLUSIONS: c-TCD is a highly sensitive and highly specific method for detecting a PFO. Because c-TCD is noninvasive, it may be more suitable than c-TEE for routine preoperative screening for a PFO. C-TTE is not reliable in detecting a PFO. (+info)
(8/111) The successful surgical treatment of a paradoxical embolus to the carotid bifurcation.
Paradoxical embolism is a rare cause of ischemic stroke. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who had a saddle embolus to the carotid bifurcation successfully treated with emergency embolectomy. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a large patent foramen ovale and an easily demonstrable right-to-left shunt. Subsequent investigations revealed proximal deep venous thrombosis in the left femoral and popliteal veins and multiple pulmonary emboli. Long-term anticoagulation was instituted for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he remained neurologically intact. A literature review emphasizes the role of transesophageal echocardiography and suggests that paradoxical embolism may be a more common cause of stroke than previously thought. (+info)