(1/897) Isolation and characterization of major intrinsic microsomal membrane proteins.
Treatment of the membrane matrix derived from hepatic microsomes with buffered 1 M urea resulted in the selective extraction of a group of proteins together with a portion of the membrane lipid. Thorough chemical characterization of this fraction has been performed, and the proteins have been fractionated by two different procedures. The first of these, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has produced five highly homogeneous membrane proteins which have been characterized with regard to molecular weight, electrophoretic behavior in five different polyacrylamide systems, NH2 terminus, relative carbohydrate content, isoelectric point, and amino acid composition. The five proteins of this group fell in the molecular weight range of 54,000 to 96,000 and had isoelectric points ranging from pH 4.9 to pH 6.7. Further fractionation of the urea-soluble proteins by gel filtration in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing medium resulted in the isolation of four homogeneous molecular weight classes of proteins which have been characterized with respect to various physicochemical parameters. The major membrane glycoprotein (apparent molecular weight, 171,000) was isolated by this procedure and found to contain approximately equal amounts of NH2-terminal glycine and serine. suggesting the presence of at least two polypeptide chains in this molecular weight region. From the urea-insoluble fraction of the membrane comprising approximately 80% of the total protein, five intrinsic polypeptides designated S-5 through S-9 were isolated. S-5 (54,000) and S-6 (49,000) represent the most prominent components in the microsomal membrane, accounting for close to 30% of the total protein. Also isolated and characterized is the smallest membrane protein (S-9), a hydrophobic polypeptide of molecular weight 16,000. All of the urea-insoluble proteins are glycoproteins, and S-7 (35,000) gives the second most intense stain for carbohydrate of all proteins in the microsomal membrane. (+info)
(2/897) The purification and characterization of rabbit placental lactogen.
Rabbit placental lactogen, a polypeptide hormone functionally related to the growth hormone/prolactin family, was isolated from placenta by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-and CM-cellulose. The hormone was purified to more than 90% homogeneity, as determined by end-group analysis. On disc gel electrophoresis at pH9.0 it migrates as a pair of closely spaced bands with mobilities of 0.489 (minor band) and 0.511 (major band), and its isoelectric point is 6.1. Its mol.wt. is 20600, as determined by sedimentation--equilibrium centrifugation, and 24200, as estimated by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate. Its amino acid composition resembles that of rabbit growth hormone and rat prolactin, except for a lower glutamic acid and leucine content. Like the prolactins, rabbit placental lactogen has two tryptophan and six cysteine residues, and its N-terminus, valine, is identical with that for human placental lactogen. By radioimmunoassay, it does not cross-react with antisera to either rat growth hormone or rat prolactin; in addition, it does not cross-react with antisera to bovine placental lactogen by double immunodiffusion. The similarity of the biochemical characteristics of rabbit placental lactogen to the other non-primate placental lactogens lends further support to the hypothesis that these molecules occupy a more central position in the growth hormone/prolactin "tree" than do their primate counterparts. (+info)
(3/897) Histone abnormalities in adult acute leukemias.
Arginine-rich and lysine-rich histones were extracted from various cytologic types of leukemic blasts and from preparations rich in normal monocytes. On polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis, the patterns of normal monocyte histones closely resembled those found in acute histiomonocytic leukemia (Schilling type). The electrophoretic patterns of histones obtained from leukemic blasts in acute myelomonocytic leukemia (Naegeli type) were similar to those found in both acute myelobastic leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. The results support the concept that acute myelomonocytic leukemia may be closely related to, or a variant of, acute myeloblastic leukemia, and that acute histiomonocytic leukemia is most probably a monocytic rather than a myeloblastic disorder. In addition to accepted morphologic and enzymatic criteria, the present studies suggest that differences in histone patterns might be useful in further distinguishing between histiomonocytic, myeloblastic, and myelomonocytic leukemias. (+info)
(4/897) Amino-acid sequence of activation cleavage site in plasminogen: homology with "pro" part of prothrombin.
A 38-residue fragment is isolated from carboxymethylated plasminogen. Residues 29-38 have the same sequence as the amino-terminal end of the light chain of plasmin. The sequence 1-28 is therefore the sequence of the carboxyl-terminal end of the heavy chain and contains the specific sequence at which urokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) and other plasminogen-activating serine proteases split. Two of the five carboxymethyl-cysteine residues in the isolated fragment are situated close to the cleavage site and the fragment is not itself a substrate for plasminogen-activators. Residues 1-11 show extensive sequence homology with residues 137-147 and 242-252 in prothrombin, which are located in corresponding regions of the two internally homologous 83-residue structures in the non-thrombin part of the molecule, indicating that such structures may be a common feature of the non-protease part of the larger serine protease zymogens. (+info)
(5/897) Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.
Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. (+info)
(6/897) Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase III of Escherichia coli. Purification and properties.
DNA polymerase III has been purified 4,500-fold from the Escherichis coli mutant, HMS83, which lacks DNA polymerases I and II. When subjected to disc gel electrophoresis, the most purified fraction exhibits a single major protein band from which enzymatic activity may be recovered. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions produces two protein bands with molecular weights of 140,000 and 40,000. The sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme is 7.0 S, and the Stokes radius is 62 A. Taken together these tow parameters indicate a native molecular weight of 180,000. Purified DNA polymerase III catalyzes the polymerization of nucleotides into DNA when provided with both a DNA template and a complementary primer strand. The newly synthesized DNA is covalently attached to the 3' terminus of the primer strand. Because the extent of polymerization is only 10 to 100 nucleotides, the best substrates are native DNA molecules with small single-stranded regions. The most purified enzyme preparation is devoid of endonuclease activities. In addition to the two exonuclease activities described in the accompanying paper, purified polymerase III also catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis and the exchange of pyrophosphate into deoxynucleoside triphosphates. DNA polymerase III has also been isolated from wild type E. coli containing the other two known DNA polymerases. Futhermore, the enzyme purified from three different polC mutants exhibits altered polymerase III activity, confirming that polC is the structural gene for DNA polymerase III (Gefter, M., Hirota, Y., Kornberb, T., Wechsler, J., and Barnoux, C. (1971) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 68, 3150-3153). (+info)
(7/897) Amino acid sequence of beta-galactosidase. IV. Sequence of an alpha-complementing cyanogen bromide peptide, residues 3 to 92.
Intracistronic alpha-complementation between a cyanogen bromide digest of beta-galactosidase and an extract of the lac Zminus operator-proximal deletion mutant M15 was used to monitor the purification of a cyanogen bromide peptide (CB2) responsible for the complementation. Key steps in the purification were ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose and sulfopropyl-Sephadex in the presence of urea, and Sephadex gel filtration. CB2 contains residues 3 to 92 of beta-galactosidase. Its sequence is: Ile-Thr-Asp-Ser-Leu-Ala-Val-Val-Leu-Gln-Arg-Arg-Asp-Trp-Glu-Asn-Pro-Gly-Val-Thr-G ln-Leu-Asn-Arg-Leu-Ala-Ala-His-Pro-Pro-Phe-Ala-Ser-Trp-Arg-Asn-Ser-Glu-Glu-Ala-Ar g-Thr-Asp-Arg-Pro-Ser-Gln-Gln-Leu-Arg-Ser-Leu-Asn-Gly-Glu-Trp-Arg-Phe-Ala-Trp-Phe -Pro-Ala-Pro-Glu-Ala-Val-Pro-Glu-Ser-Trp-Leu-Glu-Cys-Asp-Leu-Pro-Glu-Ala-Asp-Thr- Val-Val-Val-Pro-Ser-Asn-Trp-Gln-Met. Thus no more than 1/13 of the beta-galactosidase polypeptide chain, starting 2 residues from the NH2 terminus, is necessary for alpha-complementation with M15 as alpha-acceptor. (+info)
(8/897) Nuclease digestion of synthetase x tRNA complexes.
Phenylalanyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetase protect strongly though not completely their cognate tRNAs against nuclease attack, as had been shown previously. In an investigation of the mechanism of protection it was demonstrated that the low susceptibility of phenylalanyl-tRNA-synthetase x tRNA-Phe complexes to nucleases is due to free tRNA present in equilibrium with synthetase. The equilibrium can be shifted by an excess of synthetase or by dilution of the complex. It therefore appears that synthetase competes with the nuclease for free tRNA. Degradation of the complex is low, however, because under the conditions of partial digestion the synthetase has a greater affinity for the tRNA than does the nuclease. Fragmented tRNAs, as they are formed during partial nuclease digestion, bind to synthetase to different degrees. tRNA-Phe with a lesion in the dihydrouridine loop binds very poorly whereas a nick in the anticodon loop reduces the strength of binding to a much lesser extent. In a systematic study of the stoichiometry of protection it was confirmed that under standard conditions one phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase protects one tRNA-Phe and one seryl-tRNA synthetase two tRNA-Ser molecules against nuclease attack. Under certain conditions, however, (concentration of the complex higher than 10 mu-M, or alternately in buffers of low ionic strength) it is observed that phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase binds up to 1.6 molecules tRNA-Phe. In the serine system, these special conditions do not affect the binding properties of seryl-tRNA synthetase. (+info)