Effect of magnetic field exposure on anchorage-independent growth of a promoter-sensitive mouse epidermal cell line (JB6).
The anchorage-independent growth of mouse epidermal cells (JB6) exposed to 60-Hz magnetic fields (MF) was investigated. Promotion-responsive JB6 cells were suspended in agar (10(4)cells/plate) and exposed continuously to 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz magnetic fields for 10-14 days, with or without concurrent treatment with the tumor promoter tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). Exposures to MF were conducted in a manner such that the experimenter was blind to the treatment group of the cells. At the end of the exposure period, the anchorage-independent growth of JB6 cells on soft agar was examined by counting the number of colonies larger than 60 microm (minimum of 60 cells). The use of a combined treatment of the cells with both MF and TPA was to provide an internal positive control to estimate the success of the assay and to allow evaluation of co-promotion. Statistical analysis was performed by a randomized block design analysis of variance to examine both the effect of TPA treatment (alone and in combination with MF exposure) and the effect of intra-assay variability. Transformation frequency of JB6 cells displayed a dose-dependent response to increasing concentrations of TPA. Coexposure of cells to both TPA and 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz MF did not result in any differences in transformation frequency for any TPA concentrations tested (0-1 ng/ml). These data indicate that exposure to a 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz MF does not act as a promoter or co-promoter in promotion-sensitive JB6 cell anchorage-independent growth. (+info)
Transmembrane calcium influx induced by ac electric fields.
Exogenous electric fields induce cellular responses including redistribution of integral membrane proteins, reorganization of microfilament structures, and changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i). Although increases in [Ca2+]i caused by application of direct current electric fields have been documented, quantitative measurements of the effects of alternating current (ac) electric fields on [Ca2+]i are lacking and the Ca2+ pathways that mediate such effects remain to be identified. Using epifluorescence microscopy, we have examined in a model cell type the [Ca2+]i response to ac electric fields. Application of a 1 or 10 Hz electric field to human hepatoma (Hep3B) cells induces a fourfold increase in [Ca2+]i (from 50 nM to 200 nM) within 30 min of continuous field exposure. Depletion of Ca2+ in the extracellular medium prevents the electric field-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane is responsible for the [Ca2+]i increase. Incubation of cells with the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 does not inhibit ac electric field-induced increases in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that receptor-regulated release of intracellular Ca2+ is not important for this effect. Treatment of cells with either the stretch-activated cation channel inhibitor GdCl3 or the nonspecific calcium channel blocker CoCl2 partially inhibits the [Ca2+]i increase induced by ac electric fields, and concomitant treatment with both GdCl3 and CoCl2 completely inhibits the field-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Since neither Gd3+ nor Co2+ is efficiently transported across the plasma membrane, these data suggest that the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by ac electric fields depends entirely on Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium. (+info)
A 50-Hz electromagnetic field impairs sleep.
In view of reports of health problems induced by low frequency (50-60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF), we carried out a study in 18 healthy subjects, comparing sleep with and without exposure to a 50 Hz/1 mu Tesla electrical field. We found that the EMF condition was associated with reduced: total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency, stages 3 + 4 slow wave sleep (SWS), and slow wave activity (SWA). Circulating melatonin, growth hormone, prolactin, testosterone or cortisol were not affected. The results suggest that commonly occurring low frequency electromagnetic fields may interfere with sleep. (+info)
Metal detector and swallowed metal foreign bodies in children.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a metal detector to diagnose swallowed radio-opaque metal foreign bodies (MFBs) in children, and whether they can detect non-radio-opaque MFBs. METHODS: In a prospective study, 231 children, who presented to the accident and emergency department with a history of swallowing MFBs, were evaluated by the metal detector as well as radiography to confirm and locate the presence or absence of MFBs. RESULTS: A definite history of swallowing a MFB by the child was given by 186 (81%) parents. The metal detector located MFBs in 183 children and radiographs confirmed radio-opaque MFBs in 181. In the remaining 45 (19%), when swallowing was suspected and not definite, both metal detector and radiography confirmed the presence of a MFB in only four. CONCLUSION: A high detection rate of swallowed MFBs was observed in this study, using a metal detector. It is also of value to detect non-radio-opaque MFBs like aluminium. The detection of MFBs is high when the history of swallowing is definite. (+info)
Demonstration of the parity-violating energy difference between enantiomers.
Racemic mixtures of (+) and (-) sodium potassium tartrate, tris(1, 2-ethanediamine)cobalt(III), and tris(1,2-ethanediamine)iridium(III) molecules were crystallized, and the optical activities of the resulting crystalline materials, dissolved in water, were carefully measured to study the influence of the parity-violating energy difference in the crystallization process. Although no effect was found in the case of tartrate, enantiomeric excess appeared in the crystallization of the cobalt and iridium complexes. These investigations, performed in our laboratory, demonstrated the contribution of the parity-violating neutral weak current to the forces acting in molecules. (+info)
A small, physiological electric field orients cell division.
We report on an observation that the orientation of cell division is directed by small, applied electric fields (EFs). Cultured human corneal epithelial cells were exposed to a direct-current EF of physiological magnitude. Cells divided while attached to the culture dish, and most did so with a cleavage plane perpendicular to the EF vector. There are many instances in which cell divisions in vivo occur in the presence of direct-current physiological EF, for example, during embryonic morphogenesis, neuronal and epithelial differentiation, wound healing, or tumor formation. Endogenous physiological EFs may play important roles in some or all of these processes by regulating the axis of cell division and, hence, the positioning of daughter cells. (+info)
Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia in Canada.
In a case-control study of childhood leukemia in relation to exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF), 399 children resident in five Canadian provinces who were diagnosed at ages 0-14 years between 1990 and 1994 (June 1995 in British Columbia and Quebec) were enrolled, along with 399 controls. Exposure assessment included 48-hour personal EMF measurement, wire coding and magnetic field measurements for subjects' residences from conception to diagnosis/reference date, and a 24-hour magnetic field bedroom measurement. Personal magnetic fields were not related to risk of leukemia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.95, p for trend = 0.73) or acute lymphatic leukemia (OR = 0.93, p for trend = 0.64). There were no clear associations with predicted magnetic field exposure 2 years before the diagnosis/reference date or over the subject's lifetime or with personal electric field exposure. A statistically nonsignificant elevated risk of acute lymphatic leukemia was observed with very high wiring configurations among residences of subjects 2 years before the diagnosis/reference date (OR = 1.72 compared with underground wiring, 95% confidence interval 0.54-5.45). These results provide little support for a relation between power-frequency EMF exposure and risk of childhood leukemia. (+info)
Lack of effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field on biomarkers of tumor promotion in the skin of SENCAR mice.
It has been proposed that extremely low frequency magnetic fields may enhance tumorigenesis through a co-promotional mechanism. This hypothesis has been further tested using the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis, i.e. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion of skin carcinogenesis in mice initiated by a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Experimentation utilized three different doses of TPA within its dose-response range (0.85, 1.70 or 3.40 nmol) and examined the following early biomarkers of tumor promotion after 1, 2 and 5 weeks of promotion: increases in epidermal thickness and the labeling index of epidermal cells, induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and down-regulation of epidermal protein kinase C activity. Mice exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic field having a flux density of 2 mT for 6 h/day for 5 days/week were compared with mice exposed to an ambient magnetic field. Within the sensitivity limits of the biomarker methodology and the exposure parameters employed, no consistent, statistically significant effects indicative of promotion or co-promotion by the magnetic field were demonstrated. (+info)