Progress of solid-phase microextraction coatings and coating techniques.
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been popular as an environmentally friendly sample pretreatment technique to extract a very wide range of analytes. This is partly owing to the development of SPME coatings. One of the key factors affecting the extraction performances, such as the sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, is the properties of the coatings on SPME fibers. This paper classifies the materials used as SPME coatings and introduces some common preparation techniques of SPME coating in detail, such as sol-gel technique, electrochemical polymerization technique, particle direct pasting technique, restricted access matrix SPME technique, and molecularly imprinted SPME technique. (+info)
Electrochemically generated acid and its containment to 100 micron reaction areas for the production of DNA microarrays.
An addressable electrode array was used for the production of acid at sufficient concentration to allow deprotection of the dimethoxytrityl (DMT) protecting group from an overlaying substrate bound to a porous reaction layer. Containment of the generated acid to an active electrode of 100 micron diameter was achieved by the presence of an organic base. This procedure was then used for the production of a DNA array, in which synthesis was directed by the electrochemical removal of the DMT group during synthesis. The product array was found to have a detection sensitivity to as low as 0.5 pM DNA in a complex background sample. (+info)
Electrochemical monitoring of nitric oxide released by myenteric neurons of the guinea pig ileum.
Hydroxyapatite coating by electrophoretic deposition at dynamic voltage.
The aim of this study was to evaluate hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings produced by dynamic voltage during electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Dynamic voltages from 0 to 200 V were incrementally applied in three interims. The as-deposited coating was sintered at 800 degrees C and its properties evaluated. Structure and phase analyses of both as-deposited and sintered coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The HA coatings obtained by dynamic voltage consisted of two layers. While the inner layer was dense and firmly attached to the substrate and contained fine HA particles, the outer layer was porous and contained bigger particles. Repeated deposition was applied to increase the thickness of the coatings. SEM analysis showed that these coatings were free of cracks. In addition, decomposition of HA coatings was not observed until 800 degrees C. (+info)
Real-time chemical responses in the nucleus accumbens differentiate rewarding and aversive stimuli.