Electric field-directed cell motility involves up-regulated expression and asymmetric redistribution of the epidermal growth factor receptors and is enhanced by fibronectin and laminin.
Wounding corneal epithelium establishes a laterally oriented, DC electric field (EF). Corneal epithelial cells (CECs) cultured in similar physiological EFs migrate cathodally, but this requires serum growth factors. Migration depends also on the substrate. On fibronectin (FN) or laminin (LAM) substrates in EF, cells migrated faster and more directly cathodally. This also was serum dependent. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) restored cathodal-directed migration in serum-free medium. Therefore, the hypothesis that EGF is a serum constituent underlying both field-directed migration and enhanced migration on ECM molecules was tested. We used immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy and report that 1) EF exposure up-regulated the EGF receptor (EGFR); so also did growing cells on substrates of FN or LAM; and 2) EGFRs and actin accumulated in the cathodal-directed half of CECs, within 10 min in EF. The cathodal asymmetry of EGFR and actin staining was correlated, being most marked at the cell-substrate interface and showing similar patterns of asymmetry at various levels through a cell. At the cell-substrate interface, EGFRs and actin frequently colocalized as interdigitated, punctate spots resembling tank tracks. Cathodal accumulation of EGFR and actin did not occur in the absence of serum but were restored by adding ligand to serum-free medium. Inhibition of MAPK, one second messenger engaged by EGF, significantly reduced EF-directed cell migration. Transforming growth factor beta and fibroblast growth factor also restored cathodal-directed cell migration in serum-free medium. However, longer EF exposure was needed to show clear asymmetric distribution of the receptors for transforming growth factor beta and fibroblast growth factor. We propose that up-regulated expression and redistribution of EGFRs underlie cathodal-directed migration of CECs and directed migration induced by EF on FN and LAM. (+info)
Prey capture in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus albifrons: sensory acquisition strategies and electrosensory consequences.
Sensory systems are faced with the task of extracting behaviorally relevant information from complex sensory environments. In general, sensory acquisition involves two aspects: the control of peripheral sensory surfaces to improve signal reception and the subsequent neural filtering of incoming sensory signals to extract and enhance signals of interest. The electrosensory system of weakly electric fish provides a good model system for studying both these aspects of sensory acquisition. On the basis of infrared video recordings of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons) feeding on small prey (Daphnia magna) in the dark, we reconstruct three-dimensional movement trajectories of the fish and prey. We combine the reconstructed trajectory information with models of peripheral electric image formation and primary electrosensory afferent response dynamics to estimate the spatiotemporal patterns of transdermal potential change and afferent activation that occur during prey-capture behavior. We characterize the behavioral strategies used by the fish, with emphasis on the functional importance of the dorsal edge in prey capture behavior, and we analyze the electrosensory consequences. In particular, we find that the high-pass filter characteristics of P-type afferent response dynamics can serve as a predictive filter for estimating the future position of the prey as the electrosensory image moves across the receptor array. (+info)
Design features for electric communication.
How do the communication discharges produced by electric fish evolve to accommodate the unique design features for the modality? Two design features are considered: first, the limited range of signaling imposed on the electric modality by the physics of signal transmission from dipole sources; and second, the absence of signal echoes and reverberations for electric discharges, which are non-propagating electrostatic fields. Electrostatic theory predicts that electric discharges from fish will have a short range because of the inverse cube law of geometric spreading around an electrostatic dipole. From this, one predicts that the costs of signaling will be high when fish attempt to signal over a large distance. Electric fish may economize in signal production whenever possible. For example, some gymnotiform fish appear to be impedance-matched to the resistivity of the water; others modulate the amplitude of their discharge seasonally and diurnally. The fact that electric signals do not propagate, but exist as electrostatic fields, means that, unlike sound signals, electric organ discharges produce no echoes or reverberations. Because temporal information is preserved during signal transmission, receivers may pay close attention to the temporal details of electric signals. As a consequence, electric organs have evolved with mechanisms for controlling the fine structure of electric discharge waveforms. (+info)
Mechanisms for generating temporal filters in the electrosensory system.
Temporal patterns of sensory information are important cues in behaviors ranging from spatial analyses to communication. Neural representations of the temporal structure of sensory signals include fluctuations in the discharge rate of neurons over time (peripheral nervous system) and the differential level of activity in neurons tuned to particular temporal features (temporal filters in the central nervous system). This paper presents our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the transformations between these representations in electric fish of the genus Eigenmannia. The roles of passive and active membrane properties of neurons, and frequency-dependent gain-control mechanisms are discussed. (+info)
Thermal image analysis of electrothermal debonding of ceramic brackets: an in vitro study.
This study used modern thermal imaging techniques to investigate the temperature rise induced at the pulpal well during thermal debonding of ceramic brackets. Ceramic brackets were debonded from vertically sectioned premolar teeth using an electrothermal debonding unit. Ten teeth were debonded at the end of a single 3-second heating cycle. For a further group of 10 teeth, the bracket and heating element were left in contact with the tooth during the 3-second heating cycle and the 6-second cooling cycle. The average pulpal wall temperature increase for the teeth debonded at the end of the 3-second heating cycle was 16.8 degrees C. When the heating element and bracket remained in contact with the tooth during the 6-second cooling cycle an average temperature increase of 45.6 degrees C was recorded. (+info)
Spatial integration and effective spectral density of one-dimensional noise masks.
When masking one-dimensional gratings, the strongest masking effect is achieved by using one-dimensional spatial noise, which can be regarded as a special case of two-dimensional noise where the noise check height is equal to the grating height. The extent of spatial integration in the human visual system is limited, however. Hence, our aim was to investigate whether the effective height of noise checks of one-dimensional noise is similarly limited. We measured detection thresholds for vertical sinusoidal gratings with added spatial noise. The width of the noise checks remained constant, but their height increased until equal to the height of the image window which made noise one-dimensional. The contrast energy thresholds increased in direct proportion to increasing noise check height and the spectral density of noise, calculated by taking into account both the height and the width of the noise checks. The increase levelled off, however, after the critical noise check height (nyc). The critical noise check height in grating cycles changed as a function of spatial frequency (f) as nyc = 4.7 [1 + (1.4/f)2]-0.5. According to our results the effective height of noise checks was thus limited in accordance with studies on spatial integration, showing scale invariance above 1.4 c/deg. (+info)
Visual discrimination: Seeing the third quality of light.
Objects can differ in brightness and colour. At least that is what our own visual system tells us. It now seems that stomatopod shrimps, and possibly also cephalopod molluscs, can see the direction of the electric vector of light, in much the same way we see colour. (+info)
Interactions between cationic liposomes and bacteria: the physical-chemistry of the bactericidal action.
The bactericidal effect of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB), a liposome forming synthetic amphiphile, is further evaluated for Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in order to establish susceptibilities of different bacteria species towards DODAB at a fixed viable bacteria concentration (2.5 x 10(7) viable bacteria/mL). For the four species, susceptibility towards DODAB increases from E. coli to S. aureus in the order above. Typically, cell viability decreases to 5% over 1 h of interaction time at DODAB concentrations equal to 50 and 5 microm for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. At charge neutralization of the bacterial cell, bacteria flocculation by DODAB vesicles is shown to be a diffusion-controlled process. Bacteria flocculation does not yield underestimated counts of colony forming units possibly because dilution procedures done before plating cause deflocculation. The effect of vesicle size on cell viability demonstrates that large vesicles, due to their higher affinity constant for the bacteria (45.20 m(-)) relative to the small vesicles (0.14 m(-)), kill E. coli at smaller DODAB concentrations. For E. coli and S. aureus, simultaneous determination of cell viability and electrophoretic mobility as a function of DODAB concentration yields a very good correlation between cell surface charge and cell viability. Negatively charged cells are 100% viable whereas positively charged cells do not survive. The results show a clear correlation between simple adsorption of entire vesicles generating a positive charge on the cell surfaces and cell death. (+info)