(1/2193) An intrinsic oscillation in interneurons of the rat lateral geniculate nucleus.
By using the whole cell patch recording technique in vitro, we examined the voltage-dependent firing patterns of 69 interneurons in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). When held at a hyperpolarized membrane potential, all interneurons responded with a burst of action potentials. In 48 interneurons, larger current pulses produced a bursting oscillation. When relatively depolarized, some interneurons produced a tonic train of action potentials in response to a depolarizing current pulse. However, most interneurons produced only oscillations, regardless of polarization level. The oscillation was insensitive to the bath application of a combination of blockers to excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, including 30 microM 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, 100 microM (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20 microM bicuculline, and 2 mM saclofen, suggesting an intrinsic event. The frequency of the oscillation in interneurons was dependent on the intensity of the injection current. Increasing current intensity increased the oscillation frequency. The maximal frequency of the oscillation was 5-15 Hz for most cells, with some ambiguity caused by the difficulty of precisely defining a transition from oscillatory to regular firing behavior. In contrast, the interneuron oscillation was little affected by preceding depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pulses. In addition to being elicited by depolarizing current injections, the oscillation could also be initiated by electrical stimulation of the optic tract when the interneurons were held at a depolarized membrane potential. This suggests that interneurons may be recruited into thalamic oscillations by synaptic inputs. These results indicate that interneurons may play a larger role in thalamic oscillations than was previously thought. (+info)
(2/2193) Utilization of bioelectrical impedance to predict carcass composition of Holstein steers at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age.
The objective of this experiment was to study the usefulness of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in determining soft tissue composition (STC) and carcass fat-free mass (CFFM) of Holstein steers at different ages. Growth data and prediction of STC and CFFM were determined for four groups of Holstein steers: 12 of 3 mo, 12 of 6 mo, 15 of 9 mo, and 16 of 12 mo of age. Average weight for animals at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo were 96.6, 204.7, 354.1, and 465.9 kg, respectively. Average fat content of carcass soft tissue at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo were 2.6, 9.8, 18.2, and 24.6%, respectively. Average protein content of the carcass soft tissue was 20.7% at 3 mo, 20% at 6 mo, 18.30% at 9 mo, and 16.9% at 12 mo of age. Feed and water were withheld for 20 h before the BIA was applied. Steers were sedated and forced to recumbency in a lateral position on their right sides over a nonconductive surface. Two electrodes were placed on each limb of the right side (metatarsal and metacarpal regions on back and front foot, respectively). Resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were obtained by attaching four terminals to the electrodes. Impedance and other predictors such as Vol1 (L/Rs), Vol2 (L2/(RS2+Xc2).5, Vol3 (geometrical animal volume), L (2 x height + body length), and L2 were calculated from Rs and Xc, and body measurements and were used to generate prediction equations for CFFM and carcass soft tissue composition. Carcass fat-free mass was predicted accurately for all age groups and the pooled data (r2 = .99 at 3 mo, .99 at 6 mo, .97 at 9 mo, .77 at 12 mo, and .98 for the pooled data). Correlation coefficients between impedance readings and CFFM and carcass composition were calculated. Carcass CFFM and kilograms of H2O for the pooled data (across age groups) were both correlated highly to Vol1 (.97), Vol2 (.95), L (.97), and L2 (.97). (+info)
(3/2193) In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron.
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. (+info)
(4/2193) Comparative cytotoxicity of ionic and non-ionic radiocontrast agents on MDCK cell monolayers in vitro.
BACKGROUND: Intravascular radiocontrast agents may cause acute renal failure, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Direct cytotoxic effects of radiocontrast agents on renal tubular cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. METHODS: We analysed the cytotoxicity of the ionic radiocontrast agents diatrizoate (monomeric) and ioxaglate (dimeric), as well as of the non-ionic radiocontrast agents iohexol (monomeric) and iodixanol (dimeric) on the renal epithelial Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line grown on permeable supports. The toxicity assays assessed cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability between the apical and basal cell culture compartment. In addition, the distribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin was analysed using immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: In all assays the high osmolal ionic compound diatrizoate had significant cytotoxic effects that included the partial redistribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins into a cytoplasmic compartment. To a lesser extent this redistribution also occurred with the dimeric ionic compound ioxaglate, but not with the non-ionic radiocontrast agents. With regards to cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability the radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality were significantly less toxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionic strength. CONCLUSIONS: Physicochemical factors contribute to the cytotoxicity of radiocontrast agents in vitro. The redistribution of tight-junction-associated membrane proteins by the ionic radiocontrast agents corresponds with the loss of the barrier function of the epithelial cell monolayer, which is a major pathophysiological mechanism in acute renal failure. The radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality are less cytotoxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionicity. Hyperosmolality appears to be a more important determinant of the cytotoxicity of diatrizoate than ionic strength. (+info)
(5/2193) Fluid state and blood pressure control in patients treated with long and short haemodialysis.
BACKGROUND: Patients treated at the haemodialysis (HD) centre in Tassin, France have been reported to have superior survival and blood pressure (BP) control. This control has been ascribed to maintenance of an adequate fluid state, antihypertensive drugs being required in < 5% of the patients, although it could not be excluded that a high dose of HD regarding removal of uraemic toxins might also have been of value. METHODS: The aim of the study was to assess the fluid state and BP in normotensive patients on long HD (8 h) in Tassin (group TN) using bioimpedance to measure extracellular volume (ECV), ultrasound for determining the inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD), and 'on-line' monitoring of the change in blood volume (BV), and to compare them with normotensive (group SN) and hypertensive (group SH) patients on short HD (3-5 h) at centres in Sweden. ECV was normalized (ECVn) by arbitrarily setting the median ECV (in % of body weight) in SN patients at 100% for each gender, recalculating the individual values and combining the results for male and female patients in each group. RESULTS: The dose of HD (Kt/V urea) was higher for TN patients than for Swedish patients who had a similar Kt/V, whether hypertensive or not. SH patients had significantly higher ECVn and IVCD than TN and SN patients. TN and SN patients did not differ significantly regarding ECVn and IVCD before and after HD. However, in a subgroup of eight TN patients, ECVn was below the range of that in SH and SN patients, due to obesity with a high body mass index. Another subgroup of 14 TN patients had a higher ECVn than most of the SN patients and also higher than the median ECVn in the SH group, without any difference in body mass index, but they were nevertheless normotensive. The fall in BV was greater in SN than in TN patients, presumably due to a higher ultrafiltration rate in SN patients. However, SH patients had a smaller change in BV than SN patients, presumably because their state of overhydration facilitated refilling of BV from the interstitial fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Normotension can be achieved independently of the duration and dose (Kt/V urea) of HD, if the control of post-dialysis ECV is adequate. However, this is more difficult to achieve with short than with more prolonged HD during which the ultrafiltration rate is lower, BV changes are smaller and intradialysis symptoms less frequent. The results in the subgroup of patients with high ECVn at Tassin suggest that normotension may also be achieved in patients with fluid overload provided that the dialysis time is long enough to ensure more efficient removal of one or more vasoactive factors that cause or contribute to hypertension. (+info)
(6/2193) Bioelectrical impedance plethysmographic analysis of body composition in critically injured and healthy subjects.
BACKGROUND: Determination of body composition during critical illness is complex because of various patient-related and technical factors. Bioelectrical impedance is a promising technique for the analysis of body composition; however, its clinical utility in critically injured patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare bioelectrical impedance with metabolic activity in healthy and critically injured patients. If bioelectrical impedance accurately determines body composition during critical illness, the slope between body-composition variables and oxygen consumption would be the same in critically injured and healthy subjects. DESIGN: There is a strong linear relation between body composition and metabolic activity. In the present study, body composition (fat-free mass and body cell mass) was determined by using bioelectrical impedance and resting metabolic activity (metabolic rate and oxygen consumption) by using gas exchange analysis in a group of healthy and critically injured subjects. The relation between these variables was compared by using linear regression to a similar relation established by hydrostatic weighing in a large historical control group. RESULTS: The slope of the line relating fat-free mass to resting metabolic rate was the same in the healthy and critically ill groups (P = 0.62) and each was similar to the slope of the line for the control group. However, in 37% of the critically injured group, overhydration contributed to an increase in fat-free mass, disturbing the relation with resting metabolic rate. The slope of the line relating body cell mass to oxygen consumption in our healthy and critically ill groups was almost identical. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of bioelectrical impedance to determine body cell mass in healthy and critically ill subjects. (+info)
(7/2193) Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults.
BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection. (+info)
(8/2193) The isoflavone genistein inhibits internalization of enteric bacteria by cultured Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes.
The dietary isoflavone genistein is the focus of much research involving its role as a potential therapeutic agent in a variety of diseases, including cancer and heart disease. However, there is recent evidence that dietary genistein may also have an inhibitory effect on extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. To study the effects of genistein on bacterial adherence and internalization by confluent enterocytes, Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes (cultivated for 15-18 d and 21-24 d, respectively) were pretreated for 1 h with 0, 30, 100, or 300 micromol/L genistein, followed by 1-h incubation with pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, or Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes with genistein inhibited bacterial internalization in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.60-0.79). Compared to untreated enterocytes, 1-h pretreatment with 300 micromol/L genistein was generally associated with decreased bacterial internalization (P < 0. 05) without a corresponding decrease in bacterial adherence. Using Caco-2 cell cultures, decreased bacterial internalization was associated with increased integrity of enterocyte tight junctions [measured by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)], with alterations in the distribution of enterocyte perijunctional actin filaments (visualized by fluorescein-labeled phalloidin), and with abrogation of the decreased TEER associated with S. typhimurium and E. coli incubation with the enterocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, genistein was associated with inhibition of enterocyte internalization of enteric bacteria by a mechanism that might be related to the integrity of the enterocyte tight junctions, suggesting that genistein might function as a barrier-sustaining agent, inhibiting extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. (+info)