Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health.
Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements. (+info)
Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update.
Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations. (+info)
Investigating age-related changes in taste and affects on sensory perceptions of oral nutritional supplements.
Bone is more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency than liver in the institutionalized elderly.
In Japan, gamma-carboxylation of blood coagulation factors is the basis for determining adequate intake (AI) for vitamin K in Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) issued in 2010. Recently, vitamin K is also known to be essential for preventing fracture. In this study, relative susceptibility of liver and bone to vitamin K deficiency was studied. Thirty-seven elderly institutionalized subjects were evaluated for vitamin K status by measuring serum PIVKA (protein induced by vitamin K absence) -II and ucOC (undercarboxylated osteocalcin) levels, as sensitive markers for hepatic and skeletal vitamin K deficiency, respectively. Serum PIVKA-II and ucOC levels, with their cut-off values in the parentheses, were 20.2+/-8.9 mAUmL (28 mAU/mL) and 4.7+/-3.0 ng/mL (4.5 ng/mL), respectively. Median vitamin K intake was approximately 200 mug/day, which is more than 3 times higher than the current Japanese AI. Vitamin K intake was significantly correlated with serum PIVKA-II and ucOC/OC levels, but not with serum ucOC level. Although serum ucOC level is generally a good indicator for vitamin K status, multiple regression analysis revealed that elevated bone turnover marker significantly contributed to serum ucOC level. All subjects had vitamin K intake exceeding AI for vitamin K. Nevertheless, serum PIVKA-II and ucOC concentrations exceeded the cut-off value in 14% and 43% of subjects, respectively. The present findings suggest that vitamin K intake greater than the current AI is required for the skeletal health in the institutionalized elderly. (+info)
Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.
Modelling nutritional services in relation to the health status of older individuals living on Mediterranean islands.
INTRODUCTION: The world's population is ageing and it has been suggested that improvements to health, wellbeing and lifespan can be attributed to improved standards of living, especially regarding diet and nutritional status. The impact of nutritional services provided by a dietician on an older population's health status has not been well evaluated or documented. This study sought to determine whether an association exists between available nutritional services and older people's health status in selected Greek islands and the Cyprus Republic. METHODS: During 2010, information on nutritional services provided in 9 Greek Islands and the Cyprus Republic was retrieved through interviews of almost all dieticians (n=88) working on these islands. The health status (ie prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity) of the older population studied (aged >65 years) was retrieved from the Mediterranean Islands Study (MEDIS). RESULTS: The main reasons for an older person's visit to a dietician was for the treatment of diabetes (79%), hypercholesterolemia (75%) and obesity (70%); 90% of older individuals visited the dietician on a physician's recommendation and 45% of them completed their consultations. The longer the presence of a dietician on an island, the lower the likelihood of observing the prevalence of hypertension (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.36-0.94), hypercholesterolemia (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46-0.95), diabetes (OR=0.77, 95%CI=0.61-0.96) and obesity (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.45-0.95) above the median rate of the population studied. Financial concerns and a long distance from home to the dieticians' office were the major reasons for ceasing visits to the dietician. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing nutritional services within the healthcare system may contribute to reducing the burden of disease among older adults and, consequently, improve their quality of life. (+info)
Vitamin D intake and mental health-related quality of life in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.