Survivorship and radiological analysis of the standard Souter-Strathclyde total elbow arthroplasty. (1/709)

We undertook a radiological analysis of 186 standard Souter implants to determine survivorship and to analyse the pattern of failure in those needing revision. The implants had been inserted as a primary procedure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the elbow at our hospital over the last 12 years. Taking revision as an endpoint, the survivorship after 12 years was 87%. If, however, revision and loosening, defined as the Hindex value equivalent to demarcation of 1 mm around the whole implant, are also included, the survivorship falls to 80%. Of the 24 implants revised, 18 (75%) were for problems with the humeral component, three (12.5%) with the ulnar component and three (12.5%) for instability. Loosening of the humeral component occurred when the implant extended into the humerus, with the tip moving anteriorly on to the anterior humeral cortex. Our study indicates that loosening can be predicted by the rate of change in this angle of extension of the prosthesis.  (+info)

Excision of the head of the radius in rheumatoid arthritis. (2/709)

The results of excision of the head of the radius in forty-four elbows affected by rheumatoid arthritis are presented. Relief of pain was obtained in 90 per cent and an increase in the range of flexion and extension was seen in 70 per cent. Involvement of the humero-ulnar joint seen radiologically is no contra-indication to the operation; simple excision of the radial head often gives gratifying results; In our experience the relief of pain and increased range of movement have greatly reduced the need for total replacement arthroplasty.  (+info)

An acutely painful elbow as a first presentation of von Willebrand's disease. (3/709)

A 26 year old woman presented to the accident and emergency department with a painful right elbow. There had been no history of trauma. Clinical examination suggested an effusion, which was confirmed on radiological examination. Her elbow was aspirated and revealed a haemarthrosis. Subsequent investigations revealed a diagnosis of von Willebrand's disease (vWD). A spontaneously occurring effusion of the elbow may be due to a haemarthrosis. Aspiration of blood in the absence of trauma may lead to a diagnosis of an occult coagulopathy in addition to relieving pain. The diagnosis and treatment of vWD is discussed.  (+info)

Bone-peg grafting for osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow. (4/709)

In the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans involving the elbow, we have used a bone-peg graft taken from the proximal part of the ulna and inserted into the defect. Thirty-two patients were followed from 2 to 10.5 years. The graft was utilised in 20 elbows, and 6 of these also had concomitant removal of a loose body. Another 6 elbows had removal of a loose body only. Ten elbows were treated conservatively in 5 of these the outcome was unsatisfactory, including 4 in which a bone-peg graft was later necessary. The bone-peg graft gave the best short-term results. Bony union of the dissecans site and reconstitution of subchondral bone required an average of 6.5 months. In 15 patients followed for a minimum of 5 years, the bone-peg graft was effective in limiting the development of osteoarthritis. Bone-peg grafting is a reliable method for treating osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow.  (+info)

Multijoint muscle regulation mechanisms examined by measured human arm stiffness and EMG signals. (5/709)

Stiffness properties of the musculo-skeletal system can be controlled by regulating muscle activation and neural feedback gain. To understand the regulation of multijoint stiffness, we examined the relationship between human arm joint stiffness and muscle activation during static force control in the horizontal plane by means of surface electromyographic (EMG) studies. Subjects were asked to produce a specified force in a specified direction without cocontraction or they were asked to keep different cocontractions while producing or not producing an external force. The stiffness components of shoulder, elbow, and their cross-term and the EMG of six related muscles were measured during the tasks. Assuming that the EMG reflects the corresponding muscle stiffness, the joint stiffness was predicted from the EMG by using a two-link six-muscle arm model and a constrained least-square-error regression method. Using the parameters estimated in this regression, single-joint stiffness (diagonal terms of the joint-stiffness matrix) was decomposed successfully into biarticular and monoarticular muscle components. Although biarticular muscles act on both shoulder and elbow, they were found to covary strongly with elbow monoarticular muscles. The preferred force directions of biarticular muscles were biased to the directions of elbow monoarticular muscles. Namely, the elbow joint is regulated by the simultaneous activation of monoarticular and biarticular muscles, whereas the shoulder joint is regulated dominantly by monoarticular muscles. These results suggest that biarticular muscles are innervated mainly to control the elbow joint during static force-regulation tasks. In addition, muscle regulation mechanisms for static force control tasks were found to be quite different from those during movements previously reported. The elbow single-joint stiffness was always higher than cross-joint stiffness (off-diagonal terms of the matrix) in static tasks while elbow single-joint stiffness is reported to be sometimes as small as cross-joint stiffness during movement. That is, during movements, the elbow monoarticular muscles were occasionally not activated when biarticular muscles were activated. In static tasks, however, monoarticular muscle components in single-joint stiffness were increased considerably whenever biarticular muscle components in single- and cross-joint stiffness increased. These observations suggest that biarticular muscles are not simply coupled with the innervation of elbow monoarticular muscles but also are regulated independently according to the required task. During static force-regulation tasks, covariation between biarticular and elbow monoarticular muscles may be required to increase stability and/or controllability or to distribute effort among the appropriate muscles.  (+info)

Salvage of the head of the radius after fracture-dislocation of the elbow. A case report. (6/709)

We describe a patient with a Mason type-III fracture of the head of the radius associated with traumatic dislocation of the elbow. The radial head was intact throughout its circumference despite being completely detached from the shaft and devoid of any soft-tissue attachments. Severe comminution of the radial neck prevented reconstruction by internal fixation and precluded prosthetic replacement of the head. The head was fixed to the shaft with a tricortical iliac-crest bone graft which replaced the neck. Two years later, the patient had a stable elbow with flexion from 10 degrees to 130 degrees. Radiologically, the head of the radius appeared to be viable and the bone graft had incorporated.  (+info)

Velocity associated characteristics of force production in college weight lifters. (7/709)

OBJECTIVE: To determine velocity specific isokinetic forces and cross sectional areas of reciprocal muscle groups in Olympic weight lifters. METHODS: The cross sectional area of the flexor or extensor muscles of the elbow or knee joint was determined by a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus in 34 college weight lifters and 31 untrained male subjects matched for age. Maximum voluntary force produced in the flexion and extension of the elbow and knee joints was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300 degrees/s. RESULTS: The average cross sectional area was 31-65% higher, and the force was 19-62% higher in weight lifters than in the untrained subjects. The ratio of force to cross sectional area was the same in both groups. The weight lifters showed a lower velocity associated decline in force than untrained subjects in the elbow and knee flexors but not in the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that for muscle contractions with velocities between 60 degrees/s and 300 degrees/s the difference in isokinetic force between weight lifters and untrained subjects can be primarily attributed to the difference in the muscle cross sectional area. However, the lower velocity associated decline in force implies that weight lifters may have a higher force per cross sectional area than untrained subjects at velocities above 300 degrees/s.  (+info)

Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation in an international gymnast. (8/709)

Elbow dislocation is a rare injury in elite athletes. We report an unusual case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocations with a unilateral radial head fracture in an international female athlete competing on the asymmetrical bars. These injuries require prompt reduction and immediate mobilisation if an abrupt end to a promising career is to be prevented.  (+info)