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(1/743) Soft tissue elastometer.

We have developed a device entitled the 'Tissue Elastometer' (TE) for evaluating the Young's modulus of soft tissues. Soft tissue specimens are compressed between the object plate of an electronic balance and a linearly actuated indenter with a small rounded tip. The hardware of the device was designed such that a deformation model for semi-infinite media is applicable for calculating the Young's modulus of test specimens from their collected force-displacement data. Force-elongation measurements were performed on long strips of cured silicone mixtures to produce calibrated, tissue-mimicking test samples for the TE in a Young's modulus range of 10-400 kPa. When tested with the TE, the Young's moduli of the silicone samples demonstrated accuracy to within 1-10% of their calibrated values. Testing on excised tissue samples (fresh store-bought poultry breast; bovine liver, kidneys, hind shanks; porcine) was also performed, and a repeatability of elasticity measurements was demonstrated in the range of 8-14%. Results indicate that the TE can be effectively used in laboratory and clinical environments to evaluate the elasticity modulus of tissues.  (+info)

(2/743) Characterization of cysts using differential correlation coefficient values from two dimensional breast elastography: preliminary study.

Although simple cysts are easily identified using sonography, description and management of nonsimple cysts remains uncertain. This study evaluated whether the correlation coefficient differences between breast tissue and lesions, obtained from 2D breast elastography, could potentially distinguish nonsimple cysts from cancers and fibroadenomas. We hypothesized that correlation coefficients in cysts would be dramatically lower than surrounding tissue because noise, imaging artifacts, and particulate matter move randomly and decorrelate quickly under compression, compared with solid tissue. For this preliminary study, 18 breast lesions (7 nonsimple cysts, 4 cancers, and 7 fibroadenomas) underwent imaging with 2D elastography at 7.5 MHz through a TPX (a polymethyl pentene copolymer) 2.5 mm mammographic paddle. Breasts were compressed similar to mammographic positioning and then further compressed for elastography by 1 to 7%. Images were correlated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking algorithms and displacement estimates were accumulated. Correlation coefficient means and standard deviations were measured in the lesion and adjacent tissue, and the differential correlation coefficient (DCC) was introduced as the difference between these values normalized to the correlation coefficient of adjacent tissue. Mean DCC values in nonsimple cysts were 24.2 +/- 11.6%, 5.7 +/- 6.3% for fibroadenomas, and 3.8 +/- 2.9 % for cancers (p < 0.05). Some of the cysts appeared smaller in DCC images than gray-scale images. These encouraging results demonstrate that characterization of nonsimple breast cysts may be improved by using DCC values from 2D elastography, which could potentially change management options of these cysts from intervention to imaging follow-up. A dedicated clinical trial to fully assess the efficacy of this technique is recommended.  (+info)

(3/743) Magnetic resonance elastography of the brain.

The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) (a) to obtain estimates of the shear modulus of human cerebral tissue in vivo and (b) to assess a possible age dependence of the shear modulus of cerebral tissue in healthy adult volunteers. MR elastography studies were performed on tissue-simulating gelatin phantoms and 25 healthy adult volunteers. The data were analyzed using spatiotemporal filters and a local frequency estimating algorithm. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. The mean shear stiffness of cerebral white matter was 13.6 kPa (95% CI 12.3 to 14.8 kPa); while that of gray matter was lower at 5.22 kPa (95% CI 4.76 to 5.66 kPa). The difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001).  (+info)

(4/743) Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Accurate detection of hepatic fibrosis is crucial for assessing prognosis and candidacy for treatment in patients with chronic liver disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography, a technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, has been shown previously to have potential for noninvasively detecting liver fibrosis. The goal of this work was to obtain preliminary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in diagnosing liver fibrosis, and to assess its potential for identifying patients who potentially can avoid a biopsy procedure. METHODS: MR elastography was performed in 35 normal volunteers and 50 patients with chronic liver disease. MR imaging measurements of hepatic fat to water ratios were obtained to assess the potential for fat infiltration to affect stiffness-based detection of fibrosis. RESULTS: Liver stiffness increased systematically with fibrosis stage. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that, with a shear stiffness cut-off value of 2.93 kilopascals, the predicted sensitivity and specificity for detecting all grades of liver fibrosis is 98% and 99%, respectively. Receiver operating curve analysis also provided evidence that MR elastography can discriminate between patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (grades 2-4) and those with mild fibrosis (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 85%). Hepatic stiffness does not appear to be influenced by the degree of steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: MR elastography is a safe, noninvasive technique with excellent diagnostic accuracy for assessing hepatic fibrosis. Based on the high negative predictive value of MR elastography, an initial clinical application may be to triage patients who are under consideration for biopsy examination to assess possible hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

(5/743) 3D ultrasound elastography for early detection of lesions. evaluation on a pressure ulcer mimicking phantom.

A pressure ulcer is a damaged tissue area induced by an unrelieved pressure compressing the tissue during a prolonged period of immobility. The lack of information and studies on the development of this pathology makes its prevention difficult. However, it is both acknowledged that lesions initiate in the deep muscular tissues before they expand to the skin, and that lesions are harder than healthy tissues. Elastography is therefore an interesting tool for an early detection of the pathology. A 3D strain estimation algorithm is presented and evaluated on a PVA-cryogel phantom, mimicking a pressure ulcer at an early stage.  (+info)

(6/743) A tissue-level model of the left ventricle for the analysis of regional myocardial function.

This paper presents a model-based method for the analysis of regional myocardial strain, based on echocardiography and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI). A multi-formalism, tissue-level electromechanical model of the left ventricle is proposed. The parameters of the model are identified in order to reproduce regional strain signal morphologies obtained from a healthy subject and a patient presenting a dilated cardiomyopathy. The parameters identified for the DCM patient allow the localization of the failing myocardial segments and may be useful for a better design of cardiac resynchronization therapy on heart failure patients.  (+info)

(7/743) Elastography in hepatology.

A common characteristic of all chronic liver diseases is the occurrence and progression of fibrosis toward cirrhosis. Consequently, liver fibrosis assessment plays an important role in hepatology. Besides its importance for prognosis, determining the level of fibrosis reveals the natural history of the disease and the risk factors associated with its progression, to guide the antifibrotic action of different treatments. Currently, in clinical practice, there are three available methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis: liver biopsy, which is still considered to be the 'gold standard'; serological markers of fibrosis and their mathematical combination - suggested in recent years to be an alternative to liver biopsy - and, more recently, transient elastography (TE). TE is a new, simple and noninvasive method used to measure liver stiffness. This technique is based on the progressing speed of an elastic shear wave within the liver. Currently, there are only a few studies that have evaluated TE effectiveness in chronic liver diseases, mostly in patients infected with the hepatitis C virus. Further studies are needed in patients with chronic liver disease, to assess the effectiveness of the fibrosis treatment.  (+info)

(8/743) Transient elastography to assess hepatic fibrosis in primary biliary cirrhosis.

BACKGROUND: Liver stiffness measurements may have potential for detecting and monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. AIM: To study the detection, quantification and progression of hepatic fibrosis in primary biliary cirrhosis by liver stiffness measurements. METHODS: Liver stiffness measurements were generated in 80 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis by applying transient elastography; however, as there were 55 with liver biopsy, histological stage (METAVIR) and liver stiffness measurements were compared only in these 55 patients. The efficiency of liver stiffness measurements in predicting stage of fibrosis was determined from the area under receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients included, 91, 4% were women and their mean age was 56 +/- 12 (s.d.) years. A significant correlation was found (P < 0.05) between histological fibrosis stage (METAVIR) and liver stiffness measurements. The values obtained from area under receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of liver stiffness measurement data were 0.89 for F > 2 and 0.96 for F = 4. Liver stiffness measurements were 9.0 +/- 5.3 and 7.9 +/- 6.0 kPa for patients followed up more than 5 years and less than 5 years, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, median values of liver stiffness measurements correlated with histological severity of hepatic fibrosis. Liver stiffness measurements appear to be promising for liver fibrosis detection and quantification, as well as monitoring its progression, in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The progression rate of hepatic fibrosis in our primary biliary cirrhosis patients appears to be slow.  (+info)