Joint hypermobility and genetic collagen disorders: are they related?
The HDCTs constitute a heterogeneous group of rare genetically determined diseases, the best known of which are Ehlers-Danlos and Marfan syndromes and osteogenesis imperfecta. Hypermobility is a feature common to them all, but it is also a feature that is highly prevalent in the population at large. Symptomatic hypermobile subjects (whose symptoms are attributable to their hypermobility) are said to be suffering from the benign joint hypermobility syndrome, which has many features that overlap with the HDCTs. It is not yet known whether there is a variety of hypermobility (symptomatic or otherwise) that is not part of a connective tissue disorder. (+info)
Human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII C and bovine dermatosparaxis are caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase gene.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC is a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder, characterized by extreme skin fragility, characteristic facies, joint laxity, droopy skin, umbilical hernia, and blue sclera. Like the animal model dermatosparaxis, EDS type VIIC results from the absence of activity of procollagen I N-proteinase (pNPI), the enzyme that excises the N-propeptide of type I and type II procollagens. The pNPI enzyme is a metalloproteinase containing properdin repeats and a cysteine-rich domain with similarities to the disintegrin domain of reprolysins. We used bovine cDNA to isolate human pNPI. The human enzyme exists in two forms: a long version similar to the bovine enzyme and a short version that contains the Zn++-binding catalytic site but lacks the entire C-terminal domain in which the properdin repeats are located. We have identified the mutations that cause EDS type VIIC in the six known affected human individuals and also in one strain of dermatosparactic calf. Five of the individuals with EDS type VIIC were homozygous for a C-->T transition that results in a premature termination codon, Q225X. Four of these five patients were homozygous at three downstream polymorphic sites. The sixth patient was homozygous for a different transition that results in a premature termination codon, W795X. In the dermatosparactic calf, the mutation is a 17-bp deletion that changes the reading frame of the message. These data provide direct evidence that EDS type VIIC and dermatosparaxis result from mutations in the pNPI gene. (+info)
Multiple aortocaval fistulas associated with a ruptured abdominal aneurysm in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Aortocaval fistula (ACF) is a rare complication of spontaneous abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture, with an incidence of 2-4%. A unique case of ruptured AAA complicated by multiple aortovenous fistulas involving the inferior vena cava and left internal iliac vein is presented, and is the first published report of a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome undergoing surgical treatment for an ACF. (+info)
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with multiple spinal meningeal cysts--case report.
A 40-year-old female with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was admitted because of a large pelvic mass. Radiological examination revealed multiple spinal meningeal cysts. The first operation through a laminectomy revealed that the cysts originated from dilated dural sleeves containing nerve roots. Packing of dilated sleeves was inadequate. Finally the cysts were oversewed through a laparotomy. The cysts were reduced, but the postoperative course was complicated by poor wound healing and diffuse muscle atrophy. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with spinal cysts may be best treated by endoscopic surgery. (+info)
Molecular basis for the progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Identification and characterization of two mutations in galactosyltransferase I gene.
Progeroid type Ehlers-Danlos (E-D) syndrome was reported to be caused by defects in galactosyltransferase I (EC 126.96.36.199), which is involved in the synthesis of common linkage regions of proteoglycans. Recently, we isolated cDNA of the galactosyltransferase I (XGalT-1) (Okajima, T., Yoshida, K., Kondo, T., and Furukawa, K. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 22915-22918). Therefore, we analyzed mutations in this gene of a patient with progeroid type E-D syndrome by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Two changes of G and T to A and C at 186 and 206, respectively, were detected. Then, we determined the genomic DNA sequences encompassing the A186D and L206P mutations, revealing that the unaffected parents and two siblings were heterozygous for either one of the two different mutations and normal, while the patient had both of two different mutant genes. Enzymatic functions of cDNA clones of XGalT-1 containing the individual mutations were examined, elucidating that L206P clone completely lost the activity, while A186D retained approximately 50% or 10% of the activity when analyzed with extracts from cDNA transfectant cells or recombinant soluble enzymes, respectively. Moreover, L206P enzyme showed diffuse staining in the cytoplasm of transfectant cells, while the wild type or A186D clones showed Golgi pattern. These results indicated that the mutations in XGalT-1 were at least one of main molecular basis for progeroid type E-D syndrome. (+info)
Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV lack type III collagen.
One of the genetically distinct collagens (type III) normally found in skin, aorta, and intestine is missing from the tissues of patients with the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. While skin fibroblasts from other individuals synthesize both types I and III collagen. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV cells synthesize only type I. These results suggest that the fragile skin, blood vessels, and intestines of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV patients result from an absence of type III collagen. (+info)
Simultaneous synthesis of types I and III collagen by fibroblasts in culture.
Specific antibodies against types I and III collagens and procollagens were used to localize these proteins in cultured human cells. These studies indicate that the same cell makes both proteins. No type III procollagen synthesis was observed in cells from two patients with two patients with the Ehlers-Danlos type IV syndrome. (+info)
Clinical and genetic features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type.
BACKGROUND: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type, results from mutations in the gene for type III procollagen (COL3A1). Affected patients are at risk for arterial, bowel, and uterine rupture, but the timing of these events, their frequency, and the course of the disease are not well documented. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and family histories of and medical and surgical complications in 220 index patients with biochemically confirmed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and 199 of their affected relatives. We identified the underlying COL3A1 mutation in 135 index patients. RESULTS: Complications were rare in childhood; 25 percent of the index patients had a first complication by the age of 20 years, and more than 80 percent had had at least one complication by the age of 40. The calculated median survival of the entire cohort was 48 years. Most deaths resulted from arterial rupture. Bowel rupture, which often involved the sigmoid colon, accounted for about a quarter of complications but rarely led to death. Complications of pregnancy led to death in 12 of the 81 women who became pregnant. The types of complications were not associated with specific mutations in COL3A1. CONCLUSIONS: Although most affected patients survive the first and second major complications, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV results in premature death. The diagnosis should be considered in young people who come to medical attention because of uterine rupture during pregnancy or arterial or visceral rupture. (+info)