Learning rate for laparoscopic surgical skills on MIST VR, a virtual reality simulator: quality of human-computer interface.
Acquiring laparoscopic surgical skills involves initial learning of cognitive and motor skills followed by refinement of those skills. The successful use of a virtual reality simulator depends on the quality of the interface for the human-computer interaction and this can be determined by the initial learning rate. MIST VR, a part-task virtual reality laparoscopic simulator, provides objective assessment of psychomotor skills and can generate an overall score for performance, based upon errors made and time taken for six different tasks. This study analysed the rate of early task/instrument/computer familiarization on consecutive scores achieved by surgically experienced and naive individuals. Eleven surgeons, 18 medical students and seven non-medical personnel were tested on the simulator up to ten consecutive times, within a 2-week period. Performance data from every task and repetition were analysed to obtain individual scores of task performance. The calculation of overall score penalized errors far more heavily than total time taken, with high scores indicating poor performance. The surgeon-computer interface generated a rapid and significant early familiarization curve up to the third session on the simulator, with significant reductions in both time taken and total contact errors made. These results suggest that MIST VR represents a high quality interface. Surgeons scored consistently and significantly better than other subjects on all tasks. For surgically naive individuals, it was possible to predict the level of laparoscopic skills performance that would be attained after overcoming initial simulator learning curve, by studying their initial score. Overall scores reflected surgical experience and suggest that the simulator is measuring surgically relevant parameters. MIST VR provides a validated and much needed method for objective assessment of laparoscopic skills, for a variety of surgical disciplines. (+info)
The role of simulation in surgical training.
Surgical training has undergone many changes in the last decade. One outcome of these changes is the interest that has been generated in the possibility of training surgical skills outside the operating theatre. Simulation of surgical procedures and human tissue, if perfect, would allow complete transfer of techniques learnt in a skills laboratory directly to the operating theatre. Several techniques of simulation are available including artificial tissues, animal models and virtual reality computer simulation. Each is discussed in this article and their advantages and disadvantages considered. (+info)
The changing face of dental education: the impact of PBL.
The past decade has seen increasing demands for reform of dental education that would produce a graduate better equipped to work in the rapidly changing world of the twenty-first century. Among the most notable curriculum changes implemented in dental schools is a move toward Problem-Based Learning (PBL). PBL, in some form, has been a feature of medical education for several decades, but has only recently been introduced into dental schools. This paper discusses the rationale for the introduction of a PBL pedagogy into dental education, the modalities of PBL being introduced, and the implications of the introduction of PBL into dental schools. Matters related to implementation, faculty development, admissions, and assessment are addressed. Observations derived from a parallel-track dental PBL curriculum at the University of Southern California (USC) are presented and discussed. This program conforms to the Barrows (1998) concept of "authentic PBL" in that the program has no scheduled lectures and maintains a PBL pedagogy for all four years of the curriculum. The USC dental students working in the PBL curriculum have attained a high level of achievement on U.S. National Dental Boards (Part I) examinations, significantly superior to their peers working in a traditional lecture-based curriculum. (+info)
Evaluation of web-based dental CE courses.
Various organizations offer online continuing dental education (CDE) courses. While previous investigations focused on objective measures to determine the quality of the courses, this exploratory study evaluates the participants' experience with them. We surveyed 436 past course participants from nine online CDE courses (courses provided by six organizations) regarding their experience with the courses taken. Our analysis of the 169 responses (38.8 percent response rate) focuses on how the participants of online CDE courses can be characterized; whether the participants' expectations were met by the courses; how the participants evaluated the content of the courses; why they enrolled; and the participants' experience of the online environment. The results suggest that online CDE courses partially meet the needs and expectations of dental professionals. The lack of communication with peers and instructors as well as the fact that courses appeared outdated were main reasons for dissatisfaction. Most of the participants accomplished their goals of gaining new knowledge and deepening their understanding of the subject. Based on this evaluation, future courses can be tailored to meet more closely the expectations and needs of dental professionals. (+info)
Use of a high-fidelity simulator to develop testing of the technical performance of novice anaesthetists.
BACKGROUND: We used the Delphi technique to gain a consensus from 26 consultant anaesthetists about technical tasks during general anaesthesia. We then developed a technical scoring system to assess anaesthetists undertaking general anaesthesia with rapid sequence induction. METHODS: We then followed the performance of six novice anaesthetists on five occasions during their first 3 months of training. At each, visit each novice 'anaesthetized' the Human Patient Simulator at Bristol Medical Simulator Centre. For comparison seven post-fellowship anaesthetists were scored on one occasion. RESULTS: Novice scores improved significantly over the 12-week period (P<0.01). A significant difference was also found between the final novice scores and the post-fellowship subjects (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that simulation can be used to observe and quantify technical performance. (+info)
Anatomy of a successful K-12 educational outreach program in the health sciences: eleven years experience at one medical sciences campus.
The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is the administrative home of a nationally recognized educational outreach program in the health sciences for K-12 teachers (includes school nurses, counselors, etc.) and students. This program is called the Partners in Health Sciences (PIHS) program. It began in the summer of 1991 and is based on an annual needs assessment of the state's teachers. PIHS is a program available to all teachers and students in the state. It has several different components: (1) a cafeteria of 21 days of mini-courses offered in the summer to meet the professional development needs of K-12 biology/health teachers and other school personnel; (2) weekly, interactive telecommunication broadcasts for students during the academic year; (3) intensive, 5-day workshops that train five selected teachers at a time (10 per year) to use an authoring software program to develop grade-appropriate interactive, computer-assisted, instructional (CAI) modules for Internet (http://k14education.uams.edu) use by teachers and students; (4) a monthly science night for students and their parents at a local science magnet high school; (5) field trips to the UAMS campus for teachers and their students; (6) community-requested presentations by program faculty; and (7) availability of earning undergraduate and graduate credit for science education majors in the College of Education, University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The data presented in this report span the period from 1991 through 2001. For all program activities, 14,084 different participants have consumed a total of 50,029 hours of education. (+info)
Distance education in the U.S. and Canadian undergraduate dental curriculum.
A major trend at all levels of education in recent years has been the advent of distance learning and, more specifically, the use of computers and communications capabilities to provide online learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which distance learning and online technologies are being employed by dental schools in the United States and Canada. Two groups were surveyed: academic deans and faculty members of U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Thirty-eight academic deans responded to a paper-based survey, and more than 400 faculty members responded to a web-based survey. The results of these surveys indicate that online delivery of content and information has a bright future in the delivery of the dental school curriculum. At the same time, formidable obstacles must be addressed for this approach to be successful. (+info)
Cancer cell biology: a student-centered instructional module exploring the use of multimedia to enrich interactive, constructivist learning of science.
Multimedia has the potential of providing bioscience education novel learning environments and pedagogy applications to foster student interest, involve students in the research process, advance critical thinking/problem-solving skills, and develop conceptual understanding of biological topics. Cancer Cell Biology, an interactive, multimedia, problem-based module, focuses on how mutations in protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation by engaging students as research scientists/physicians with the task of diagnosing the molecular basis of tumor growth for a group of patients. The process of constructing the module, which was guided by scientist and student feedback/responses, is described. The completed module and insights gained from its development are presented as a potential "multimedia pedagogy" for the development of other multimedia science learning environments. (+info)