A national survey of U.S. pharmacists in 2000: assessing nonresponse bias of a survey methodology.
The first objective of this study was to assess the existence of nonresponse bias to a national survey of licensed pharmacists conducted in 2000. Three methods were used to assess nonresponse bias. The second objective of the study was to examine reasons why sampled licensed pharmacists did not respond to the national survey of licensed pharmacists. We used data from 2204 respondents to a national survey of pharmacists and from 521 respondents to a survey of nonrespondents to the national survey. We made comparisons between respondents for 5 variables: employment status, gender, age, highest academic degree, and year of initial licensure. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in the 5 variables between respondents to the first mailing and second mailing of the survey, early and late respondents to the survey, and respondents to the survey and respondents to the nonrespondent survey. There were no significant differences between first mailing and second mailing respondents, but there were differences in each variable except year of licensure between early and late respondents. These differences likely were due to regional bias possibly related to differences in mailing times. There were differences between respondents and nonrespondents in terms of employment status and year of licensure. The main reasons for not responding to the survey were that it was too long or that it was too intrusive. Overall, the survey methodology resulted in a valid sample of licensed pharmacists. Nonresponse bias should be assessed by surveying nonrespondents. Future surveys of pharmacists should consider the length of the survey and the address where it is sent. (+info)
Creation of a graduate oral/written communication skills course.
OBJECTIVE: To convert a traditional graduate seminar course into a class that emphasizes written as well as oral communication skills. DESIGN: Graduate pharmacology/toxicology students presented formal and informal seminars on their research progress and on recent peer-reviewed literature from the field. Students in the audience wrote critiques of the research project or article, as well as of the presentations themselves. ASSESSMENT: Students were evaluated based on oral presentations, class participation, and a scientific writing component. All faculty members provided constructive written comments and a grade. The course master provided the presenter with a formal written review and returned a "red pen" revision of each student critique. CONCLUSION: This novel seminar/writing course introduces intensive focus on writing skills, which are especially essential today given the large number of graduate students for whom English is not a first language. (+info)
Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector. (+info)
Organizing a community advanced pharmacy practice experience.
Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. (+info)
Drug information education in doctor of pharmacy programs.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize pharmacy program standards and trends in drug information education. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 34 questions addressing general demographic characteristics, organization, and content of drug information education was distributed to 86 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States using a Web-based survey system. RESULTS: Sixty colleges responded (73% response rate). All colleges offered a campus-based 6-year first-professional degree PharmD program. Didactic drug information was a required course in over 70% of these schools. Only 51 of the 60 colleges offered an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in drug information, and 62% of these did so only on an elective basis. CONCLUSION: Although almost all of the PharmD programs in the US include a required course in drug information, the majority do not have a required APPE in this important area. (+info)
A predictive validity study of the Pharmacy College Admission Test.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores for predicting grade point averages (GPAs) of students in years 1-4 of pharmacy programs. METHODS: Data were collected from 11 colleges and schools of pharmacy: entering cumulative and math/science GPAs, PCAT scaled scores, pharmacy program GPAs for years 1-4, student status after 4 years. Correlation, regression, discriminant, and diagnostic accuracy analyses were used to determine the validity of the PCAT for predicting subsequent GPAs. RESULTS: PCAT scaled scores and entering GPAs were positively correlated with subsequent GPAs. Regression analyses showed the predictive value of the PCAT scores, especially in combination with entering GPAs. Discriminant and diagnostic accuracy analyses supported these findings and provided practical suggestions regarding optimal PCAT scores for identifying students most likely to succeed. CONCLUSION: Both PCAT scaled scores and entering cumulative GPAs showed moderate to strong predictive validity as indicators of candidates likely to succeed in pharmacy school. (+info)
Pharmacy students' and graduates' attitudes towards people with schizophrenia and severe depression.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the attitudes of third-year pharmacy students and pharmacy graduates towards people with schizophrenia and severe depression. METHODS: Third-year pharmacy students (n = 216) and pharmacy graduates (n = 232) completed a survey instrument with 21 common items. The third-year students had not yet received any mental health lectures or tutorials as part of their pharmacy course. The graduates had completed their university education, including mental health lectures and tutorials, plus 6 months of supervised clinical practice in the pharmacy workplace. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the third-year students and pharmacy graduates in terms of social distance from people with schizophrenia. The rates of stigmatization of people with schizophrenia and severe depression were also similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health lectures and tutorials delivered by pharmacists and supervised clinical practice in the pharmacy workplace may not decrease students' social distance or stigmatization of people with mental illness. The results of our study suggest that more comprehensive education and training programs are needed to improve the ability of pharmacists to meet the needs of people with mental illness. (+info)
Student satisfaction and academic performance in a dual PharmD/MBA degree program.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the academic experience and satisfaction of students enrolled in the dual PharmD/MBA degree program between the South Carolina College of Pharmacy and The Citadel's School of Business Administration. Compare grade point averages of students enrolled in the dual degree program with those of traditional student colleagues. METHODS: A standardized satisfaction survey instrument was administered to 32 students currently enrolled in the dual PharmD/MBA degree program. Grade point averages (GPAs) in both pharmacy and business coursework were also collected for analysis. RESULTS: There were slightly higher percentages of both female and minority students in the dual degree program compared to the pharmacy class as a whole. Eighteen (56%) of students completed the survey, and responses were generally positive. The mean GPA of students in the dual degree program was higher than that of both pharmacy (3.37 vs 3.08, p < 0.001) and business (3.72 vs 3.64, not statistically significant) students not enrolled in the dual degree program. CONCLUSIONS: Students enrolled in the dual degree program did better academically than their counterparts and indicated an overall high level of satisfaction with the program. (+info)