Medicare program; payment for nursing and allied health education. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Final rule.
This final rule sets forth in regulations Medicare policy for the payment of costs of approved nursing and allied health education programs. In addition, the rule clarifies the payment methodology for certified registered nurse anesthetist education programs. In general, the final rule clarifies and restates payment policies previously established in the Provider Reimbursement Manual and other documents, but never specifically addressed in regulations. The final rule carries out a directive made in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 and addresses changes required by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. (+info)
Early socialization of new critical care nurses.
BACKGROUND: Critical care nurses provide care to acutely ill patients, yet little is known about the early socialization processes of new nurses to critical care units from the nurses' perspectives. OBJECTIVES: To explore the early socialization processes of critical care nurses. METHODS: A grounded theory design was used to generate a local theory of how critical care nurses experience socialization. Interviews and journals of participants (N = 10) during the first 4 to 5 months of the socialization experiences were collected. Preceptors were interviewed to triangulate data. Orientation materials and field notes were examined. RESULTS: A process of 5 phases was uncovered: the prodrome, welcome to the unit, disengagement/testing, on my own, and reconciliation. Participants experienced difficulty while being evaluated by preceptors early in the orientation process because of changing expectations. Participants also expressed disappointment in their level of comfort at the end of the orientation. The theory termed "navigating the challenge" explains the nature of the changing expectations that new critical care nurses face during their socialization process. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study defines the phases that new critical care nurses experience during the early socialization process. Phase-specific recommendations are made on the basis of the results of the study. (+info)
Tobacco dependence curricula in acute care nurse practitioner education.
BACKGROUND: Tobacco dependence is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, yet healthcare professionals are not adequately educated on how to help patients break the deadly cycle of tobacco dependence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the content and extent of tobacco education in the curricula of acute care nurse practitioner programs in the United States. METHODS: A survey with 13 multiple-choice items was distributed to the coordinators of 72 acute care nurse practitioner programs. The survey was replicated and modifiedfrom previous research on tobacco dependence curricula in undergraduate medical education. RESULTS: Fifty programs (83%) responded to the survey. Overall, during an entire course of study, 70% of the respondents reported that only between 1 and 3 hours of content on tobacco dependence was covered. Seventy-eight percent reported that students were not required to teach smoking-cessation techniques to patients, and 94% did not provide opportunities for students to be certified as smoking-cessation counselors. Sixty percent reported that the national guidelines for smoking cessation were not used as a curriculum reference for tobacco content. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of acute care nurse practitioner programs include brief tobacco education. More in-depth coverage is required to reduce tobacco dependence. Acute care nurse practitioners are in a prime position to intervene with tobacco dependence, especially when patients are recovering from life-threatening events. National recommendations for core tobacco curricula and inclusion of tobacco questions on board examinations should be developed and implemented. (+info)
Increased risk of tuberculosis in health care workers: a retrospective survey at a teaching hospital in Istanbul, Turkey.
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an established occupational disease affecting health care workers (HCWs). Determining the risk of TB among HCWs is important to enable authorites to take preventative measures in health care facilities and protect HCWs. This study was designed to assess the incidence of TB in a teaching hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. A retrospective study of health records of HCWs in our hospital from 1991 to 2000. RESULTS: The mean workforce of the hospital was 3359 + 33.2 between 1991 and 2000. There were 31 cases (15 male) meeting the diagnostic criteria for TB, comprising eight doctors, one nurse and 22 other health professionals. Mean incidence of TB was 96 per 100,000 for all HCWs (relative risk: 2.71), 79 per 100,000 for doctors (relative risk: 2.2), 14 per 100,000 for nurses and 121 per 100,000 (relative risk: 3.4) for other professionals. The mean incidence of TB in Turkey between 1991 and 2000 was 35.4 per 100,000. Incidence of TB was similar in the Departments of Chest Diseases and Clinical Medicine but there were no TB cases in the Basic Science and Managerial Departments. CONCLUSION: HCWs in Turkey who work in clinics have an increased risk for TB. Post-graduate education and prevention programs reduce the risk of TB. Control programs to prevent nosocomial transmission of TB should be established in hospitals to reduce risk for HCWs. (+info)
The USU medical PDA initiative: the PDA as an educational tool.
A medical personal digital assistant (PDA) initiative for healthcare students began in 2000 at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU). The University issued PDAs to Graduate School of Nursing (GSN) and School of Medicine (SOM) students. These devices were used to provide clinical reference material to the students, to facilitate clinical experience log collection, and the normal organizer functions of a PDA. Both medical and graduate nursing students were surveyed both before and during clinical training to determine the perceived usefulness of the PDA. A quantitative approach was utilized to emphasize the measurable variables. (+info)
The role of oncology nursing to ensure quality care for cancer survivors: a report commissioned by the National Cancer Policy Board and Institute of Medicine.
PURPOSE: To examine the roles of oncology nurses in improving quality care for cancer survivors. DATA SOURCES: A content analysis of textbooks, journals, and key documents; surveys of graduate oncology nursing programs and the Oncology Nursing Society's Survivorship Special Interest Group; review of the nursing licensure examination and oncology nursing certification; review of undergraduate and graduate nursing standards; and review of currently funded nursing research. DATA SYNTHESIS: Ten critical content areas of cancer survivorship were used for the analysis: description of population of cancer survivors, primary care, short- and long-term complications, prevention of secondary cancer, detecting recurrent and secondary cancers, treatment of recurrent cancer, quality-of-life issues, rehabilitative services, palliative and end-of-life care, and quality of care. Although findings within each source indicated significant information related to the roles of nurses in caring for cancer survivors, deficits also were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Review of key literature and resources suggests significant contributions by oncology nursing over the past two decades to the area of cancer survivorship. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Support is needed to expand education and research to ensure quality care for future cancer survivors. (+info)
Educational levels of hospital nurses and surgical patient mortality.
CONTEXT: Growing evidence suggests that nurse staffing affects the quality of care in hospitals, but little is known about whether the educational composition of registered nurses (RNs) in hospitals is related to patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the proportion of hospital RNs educated at the baccalaureate level or higher is associated with risk-adjusted mortality and failure to rescue (deaths in surgical patients with serious complications). DESIGN, SETTING, AND POPULATION: Cross-sectional analyses of outcomes data for 232 342 general, orthopedic, and vascular surgery patients discharged from 168 nonfederal adult general Pennsylvania hospitals between April 1, 1998, and November 30, 1999, linked to administrative and survey data providing information on educational composition, staffing, and other characteristics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk-adjusted patient mortality and failure to rescue within 30 days of admission associated with nurse educational level. RESULTS: The proportion of hospital RNs holding a bachelor's degree or higher ranged from 0% to 77% across the hospitals. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital structural characteristics (size, teaching status, level of technology), as well as for nurse staffing, nurse experience, and whether the patient's surgeon was board certified, a 10% increase in the proportion of nurses holding a bachelor's degree was associated with a 5% decrease in both the likelihood of patients dying within 30 days of admission and the odds of failure to rescue (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.99 in both cases). CONCLUSION: In hospitals with higher proportions of nurses educated at the baccalaureate level or higher, surgical patients experienced lower mortality and failure-to-rescue rates. (+info)
Informatics competencies pre-and post-implementation of a Palm-based student clinical log and informatics for evidence-based practice curriculum.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation and evaluation of a two-part approach to achieving informatics competencies: 1) Palm-based student clinical log for documentation of patient encounters; and 2) informatics for evidence-based practice curriculum. Using a repeated-measures, non-equivalent control group design, self-reported informatics competencies were rated using a survey instrument based upon published informatics competencies for beginning nurses. For the class of 2002, scores increased significantly in all competencies from admission to graduation. Using a minimum score of 3 on a scale of 1=not competent and 5=expert to indicate competence, the only area in which it was not achieved was Computer Skills: Education. For 2001 graduates, Computer Skills: Decision Support was also below 3. There were no significant differences in competency scores between 2001 and 2002 graduates. Computer Skills: Decision Support neared significance. Subsequently, the approaches were refined for implementation in the class of 2003. (+info)