Follow-up of American Cancer Society Special Postdoctoral Research Fellowship recipients.
A follow-up study of the 44 recipients of American Cancer Society, Inc., Special Postdoctoral Research Fellowship from 1962 to 1973 revealed that 11 of 21 M.D. candidates obtained their second (Ph.D.) degree at the end of training. By contrast, all but one among the 23 Ph.D. candidates were awarded the second (M.D.) degree. A great majority of either group remain in active research, regardless of whether or not they obtained the second degree. A very high percentage of their research is cancer related. (+info)
Residents' exposure to aboriginal health issues. Survey of family medicine programs in Canada.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Canadian family medicine residency programs currently have objectives, staff, and clinical experiences for adequately exposing residents to aboriginal health issues. DESIGN: A one-page questionnaire was developed to survey the details of teaching about and exposure to aboriginal health issues. SETTING: Family medicine programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All Canadian family medicine program directors in the 18 programs (16 at universities and two satellite programs) were surveyed between October 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether programs had teaching objectives for exposing residents to aboriginal health issues, whether they had resource people available, what elective and core experiences in aboriginal health were offered, and what types of experiences were available. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. No programs had formal, written curriculum objectives for residency training in aboriginal health issues, although some were considering them. Some programs, however, had objectives for specific weekend or day sessions. No programs had a strategy for encouraging enrollment of residents of aboriginal origin. Eleven programs had at least one resource person with experience in aboriginal health issues, and 12 had access to community-based aboriginal groups. Core experiences were all weekend seminars or retreats. Elective experiences in aboriginal health were available in 16 programs, and 11 programs were active on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many Canadian family medicine programs give residents some exposure to aboriginal health issues, but most need more expertise and direction on these issues. Some programs have unique approaches to teaching aboriginal health care that could be shared. Formalized objectives derived in collaboration with other family medicine programs and aboriginal groups could substantially improve the quality of education in aboriginal health care in Canada. (+info)
The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.
To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field. (+info)
Attracting and training more chemical pathologists in the United Kingdom.
I have attempted to define the function of the medical graduate in the clinical biochemistry laboratory and have examined data on recrutiment in the United Kingdom into clinical biochemistry. If trainee pathologists were encouraged to become proficient in both a branch of clinical medicine and in research techniques, the resulting chemical pathologists should be able to improve the consultative and investigative functions of the laboratory. To this end I have suggested some changes in the training regulations and in the role of the chemical pathologists. (+info)
Bridging the gap between managed care and academic medicine: an innovative fellowship.
Numerous challenges face academic medicine in the era of managed care. This environment is stimulating the development of innovative educational programs that can adapt to changes in the healthcare system. The U.S. Quality Algorithms Managed Care Fellowship at Jefferson Medical College is one response to these challenges. Two postresidency physicians are chosen as fellows each year. The 1-year curriculum is organized into four 3-month modules covering such subjects as biostatistics and epidemiology, medical informatics, the theory and practice of managed care, managed care finance, integrated healthcare systems, quality assessment and improvement, clinical parameters and guidelines, utilization management, and risk management. The fellowship may serve as a possible prototype for future post-graduate education. (+info)
Introducing managed care to the medical school curriculum: effect on student attitudes.
In order to assess the effect of clinical training and didactic instruction on medical student attitudes toward managed care, we conducted a survey of all medical students at the midpoint of their third year clerkships at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The students were exposed to clinical training in managed care settings and a 2-day required course on the principles underlying managed care. The main outcome measures were student attitudes toward the concepts of managed care, managed care organizations, and future careers in managed care. Students also assessed the attitudes of medical faculty toward managed care. Attitudes of students with previous clinical training in managed care settings did not differ from those of students without such exposure toward the concepts underlying managed care or managed care organizations and were less positive about careers in managed care. Student responses before and after the 2-day course on managed care demonstrated that attitudes moved in a significantly positive direction. Seventy-one percent of students reported that the opinions they had heard from medical faculty about managed care were negative. Preparing medical students to practice medicine effectively in managed care settings will require focused attention on managed care issues in the medical school curriculum and the combined efforts of academic health centers and managed care organizations. (+info)
Correlating fibreoptic nasotracheal endoscopy performance and psychomotor aptitude.
We have investigated the correlation between the scores attained on computerized psychometric tests, measuring psychomotor and information processing aptitudes, and learning fibreoptic endoscopy with the videoendoscope. Sixteen anaesthetic trainees performed two adaptive tracking tasks (ADTRACK 2 and ADTRACK 3) and one information management task (MAZE) from the MICROPAT testing system. They then embarked on a standardized fibreoptic training programme during which they performed 15 supervised fibreoptic nasotracheal intubations on anaesthetized oral surgery patients. There was a significant correlation between the means of the 15 endoscopy times and both ADTRACK 2 (r = -0.599, P = 0.014) and ADTRACK 3 (r = -0.589, P = 0.016) scores. The correlation between the means of the 15 endoscopy times and MAZE scores was not significant. The ratios of the mean endoscopy time for the last seven endoscopies to the mean endoscopy time for the first seven endoscopies were not significantly correlated with ADTRACK 2, ADTRACK 3 or MAZE scores. Psychomotor abilities appeared to be determinants of trainees' initial proficiency in endoscopy, but did not appear to be determinants of trainees' rates of progress during early fibreoptic training. (+info)
The UMDS MSc in general practice: attainment of intended outcomes.
BACKGROUND: The United Medical and Dental School's (UMDS's) MSc in general practice is one of the longest running courses of its kind. Although descriptive accounts of such courses have been published, little is known about their outcomes. AIM: To measure the extent to which graduates feel they have personally achieved 16 intended outcomes derived from the course objectives, and to record current academic activities, particularly teaching and research. METHOD: A postal questionnaire to graduates of the UMDS MSc in General Practice. RESULTS: The response rate was 93%. Of the 71 responders, 23 have gone on to register for or complete other degrees or diplomas. Over two-thirds of responders had an academic commitment following the MSc. Two-thirds were currently engaged in research and over half reported having had work accepted for publication. The majority of graduates confirmed the attainment of all 16 outcomes, although outcomes related to personal achievements were endorsed more strongly than those related to service delivery. CONCLUSION: UMDS graduates are making a significant contribution to their discipline and are unanimous in describing the course as an important event in their personal development. As a result of this study, the course organizers are seeking to increase the links between academic study and everyday practice. (+info)