Properties of fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases from chicory and globe thistle, two Asteracean plants storing greatly different types of inulin. (1/3)

Remarkably, within the Asteraceae, a species-specific fructan pattern can be observed. Some species such as artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and globe thistle (Echinops ritro) store fructans with a considerably higher degree of polymerization than the one observed in chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) is the enzyme responsible for chain elongation of inulin-type fructans. 1-FFTs were purified from chicory and globe thistle. A comparison revealed that chicory 1-FFT has a high affinity for sucrose (Suc), fructose (Fru), and 1-kestose as acceptor substrate. This makes redistribution of Fru moieties from large to small fructans very likely during the period of active fructan synthesis in the root when import and concentration of Suc can be expected to be high. In globe thistle, this problem is avoided by the very low affinity of 1-FFT for Suc, Fru, and 1-kestose and the higher affinity for inulin as acceptor substrate. Therefore, the 1-kestose formed by Suc:Suc 1-fructosyltransferase is preferentially used for elongation of inulin molecules, explaining why inulins with a much higher degree of polymerization accumulate in roots of globe thistle. Inulin patterns obtained in vitro from 1-kestose and the purified 1-FFTs from both species closely resemble the in vivo inulin patterns. Therefore, we conclude that the species-specific fructan pattern within the Asteraceae can be explained by the different characteristics of their respective 1-FFTs. Although 1-FFT and bacterial levansucrases clearly differ in their ability to use Suc as a donor substrate, a kinetic analysis suggests that 1-FFT also works via a ping-pong mechanism.  (+info)

Cloning and functional analysis of a high DP fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferase from Echinops ritro (Asteraceae): comparison of the native and recombinant enzymes. (2/3)

Inulin-type fructans are the simplest and most studied fructans and have become increasingly popular as prebiotic health-improving compounds. A natural variation in the degree of polymerization (DP) of inulins is observed within the family of the Asteraceae. Globe thistle (Echinops ritro), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), and Viguiera discolor biosynthesize fructans with a considerably higher DP than Cichorium intybus (chicory), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), and Dahlia variabilis. The higher DP in some species can be explained by the presence of special fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferases (high DP 1-FFTs), different from the classical low DP 1-FFTs. Here, the RT-PCR-based cloning of a high DP 1-FFT cDNA from Echinops ritro is described, starting from peptide sequence information derived from the purified native high DP 1-FFT enzyme. The cDNA was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. A comparison is made between the mass fingerprints of the native, heterodimeric enzyme and its recombinant, monomeric counterpart (mass fingerprints and kinetical analysis) showing that they have very similar properties. The recombinant enzyme is a functional 1-FFT lacking invertase and 1-SST activities, but shows a small intrinsic 1-FEH activity. The enzyme is capable of producing a high DP inulin pattern in vitro, similar to the one observed in vivo. Depending on conditions, the enzyme is able to produce fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as well. Therefore, the enzyme might be suitable for both FOS and high DP inulin production in bioreactors. Alternatively, introduction of the high DP 1-FFT gene in chicory, a crop widely used for inulin extraction, could lead to an increase in DP which is useful for a number of specific industrial applications. 1-FFT expression analysis correlates well with high DP fructan accumulation in vivo, suggesting that the enzyme is responsible for high DP fructan formation in planta.  (+info)

2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-dihydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene, a novel NQO1 inducing agent from Echinops grijsii Hance. (3/3)