Structural basis of DNA recognition by the heterodimeric cell cycle transcription factor E2F-DP.
The E2F and DP protein families form heterodimeric transcription factors that play a central role in the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes. The crystal structure of an E2F4-DP2-DNA complex shows that the DNA-binding domains of the E2F and DP proteins both have a fold related to the winged-helix DNA-binding motif. Recognition of the central c/gGCGCg/c sequence of the consensus DNA-binding site is symmetric, and amino acids that contact these bases are conserved among all known E2F and DP proteins. The asymmetry in the extended binding site TTTc/gGCGCc/g is associated with an amino-terminal extension of E2F4, in which an arginine binds in the minor groove near the TTT stretch. This arginine is invariant among E2Fs but not present in DPs. E2F4 and DP2 interact through an extensive protein-protein interface, and structural features of this interface suggest it contributes to the preference for heterodimers over homodimers in DNA binding. (+info)
Activation of cyclin A gene expression by the cyclin encoded by human herpesvirus-8.
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, encodes a protein, referred to as HHV8-Vcyc, with sequence similarity to human G1 cyclins, in particular of the D type. HHV8-Vcyc is expressed in Kaposi's sarcoma and functional analysis suggests that it can activate cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk) and thereby trigger inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), indicating that HHV8-Vcyc may contribute to the oncogenic potential of HHV-8. We show here that HHV8-Vcyc can activate transcription of the human cyclin A gene in quiescent cells, a property shared with known transforming oncogenes. Transcriptional activation by HHV8-Vcyc depends on an E2F-binding site in the cyclin A promoter, and cdk6 kinase activity is required. The ability of HHV8-Vcyc to activate cyclin A gene expression is shared by D-type cyclins and cyclin E. Unlike D-type cyclins, HHV8-Vcyc is unable to trigger phosphorylation of the pRb-related protein p107 and fails to induce dissociation of p107 from E2F. Unlike cyclin E, HHV8-Vcyc fails to interact physically with E2F complexes on the cyclin A promoter. These results provide additional evidence for the notion that the HHV-8-encoded cyclin differs in several properties from cellular G1 cyclins. (+info)
Timing of cyclin E gene expression depends on the regulated association of a bipartite repressor element with a novel E2F complex.
Transient induction of the cyclin E gene in late G1 gates progression into S. We show that this event is controlled via a cyclin E repressor module (CERM), a novel bipartite repressor element located near the cyclin E transcription start site. CERM consists of a variant E2F-binding site and a contiguous upstream AT-rich sequence which cooperate during G0/G1 to delay cyclin E expression until late G1. CERM binds the protein complex CERC, which disappears upon progression through G0-G1 and reappears upon entry into the following G1. CERC disappearance correlates kinetically with the liberation of the CERM module in vivo and cyclin E transcriptional induction. CERC contains E2F4/DP1 and a pocket protein, and sediments faster than classical E2F complexes in a glycerol gradient, suggesting the presence of additional components in a novel high molecular weight complex. Affinity purified CERC binds to CERM but not to canonical E2F sites, thus displaying behavior different from known E2F complexes. In cells nullizygous for members of the Rb family, CERC is still detectable and CERM-dependent repression is functional. Thus p130, p107 and pRb function interchangeably in CERC. Notably, the CERC-CERM complex dissociates prematurely in pRb-/- cells in correspondence with the premature expression of cyclin E. Thus, we identify a new regulatory module that controls repression of G1-specific genes in G0/G1. (+info)
Modulation of E2F complexes during G0 to S phase transition in human primary B-lymphocytes.
The pocket protein-E2F complexes are convergence points for cell cycle signaling. In the present report, we identified and monitored the pocket protein-E2F complexes in human primary B-lymphocytes after activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Consistent with previous data from human and mouse fibroblasts and T-lymphocytes, E2F4 and DP1 form the predominant E2F heterodimers both in G0 and G1 phases of the human B-lymphocyte cell cycle, whereas E2F1 and -3 are first detected in late G1, and their expression levels increase towards S phase. Intriguingly, the major E2F complex that we detected in quiescent human B-lymphocytes is consisted of pRB, E2F4, and DP1. Though the levels of DP1 and -2 increase when cells progress from G0 to S, the proportion of DP1 to DP2 remains relatively constant during the cell cycle. We also observed an increase in electrophoretic mobility of the predominant E2F components, DP1 and E2F4, as B-lymphocytes progressed from G0 into early G1. This increase in mobility was attributable to dephosphorylation, as lambda phosphatase treatment could convert the slower migrating forms into the corresponding faster mobility forms. We further demonstrated that this change in phosphorylation status correlates with a decrease in DNA binding activity. This modulation of DNA binding activity mediated through the dephosphorylation of DP1 and E2F4 could help to explain the lack of in vivo DNA footprinting in late G1 and S phases of gene promoters negatively regulated through E2F sites and suggests a novel mechanism for controlling E2F transcriptional activity during the transition from quiescence to proliferation. (+info)
Transcriptional repression of the E2F-1 gene by interferon-alpha is mediated through induction of E2F-4/pRB and E2F-4/p130 complexes.
E2F is a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of one of five E2F subunits (E2F-1 to E2F-5) and a DP subunit. E2F regulates the expression of several growth-promoting genes, and thus, can be a target of antiproliferative action of interferons (IFNs). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms whereby IFN-alpha suppresses transcription of the E2F-1 gene. Transfection studies revealed that E2F-1 promoter was functionally divided into two parts: upstream activation sequences (UAS) and a downstream negative-regulatory element (E2F-binding sites). When cells were proliferating, transcription of the E2F-1 gene was primarily driven by the UAS, while E2F sites were not involved in activation. IFN-alpha markedly reduced E2F-1 promoter activity, but introduction of non-binding mutation at the E2F sites completely abrogated the inhibition. Free E2F4 was found to be the predominant species bound to the E2F sites in proliferating cells. IFN-alpha induced upregulation of E2F-4 along with dephosphorylation of pRB and p130, which resulted in the formation of E2F-4/pRB and E2F-4/p130 complexes on the E2F-1 promoter. These complexes function as transcriptional repressors to inhibit E2F-1 mRNA expression. Our findings indicate that E2F-4 is a critical regulator of E2F-1, which offer an excellent paradigm for understanding functional diversity within the E2F family. (+info)
Microsatellite instability is uncommon in breast cancer.
In some tumors, defects in mismatch repair enzymes lead to errors in the replication of simple nucleotide repeat segments. This condition is commonly known as microsatellite instability (MSI) because of the frequent mutations of microsatellite sequences. Although the MSI phenotype is well recognized in some colon, gastric, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers, reports of MSI in breast cancer are inconsistent. We report here our experience with >10,000 amplifications of simple nucleotide repeats in noncoding genomic regions using DNA from 267 cases of breast cancer, including cases that represent all major histological types of breast cancer. We rarely (10 reactions) found unexpected bands in amplifications of tumor DNA that were not present in amplifications of normal DNA. Moreover, repeats of these reactions did not confirm microsatellite instability in a single case. We also evaluated the simple nucleotide repeats in the transforming growth factor type II receptor, insulin-like growth factor type II receptor, BAX, and E2F-4 genes, which are frequently mutated in tumors with microsatellite instability. No mutations of these genes were found in any of the 30 breast cancer cell lines and 61 primary breast cancer samples examined. These results indicate that mismatch repair errors characteristic of the MSI phenotype are uncommon in human breast cancer. (+info)
Control of cell cycle entry and apoptosis in B lymphocytes infected by Epstein-Barr virus.
Infection of human B cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) results in activation of the cell cycle and cell growth. To interpret the mechanisms by which EBV activates the cell, we have assayed many proteins involved in control of the G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle and regulation of apoptosis. In EBV infection most of the changes, including the early induction of cyclin D2, are dependent on expression of EBV genes, but an alteration in the E2F-4 profile was partly independent of viral gene expression, presumably occurring in response to signal transduction activated when the virus binds to its receptor, CD21. By comparing the expression of genes controlling apoptosis, including those encoding several members of the BCL-2 family of proteins, the known relative resistance of EBV-immortalized B-cell lines to apoptosis induced by low serum was found to correlate with expression of both BCL-2 and A20. A20 can be regulated by the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which is known to be activated by the EBV LMP-1 protein. Quantitative assays demonstrated a direct temporal relationship between LMP-1 protein levels and active NF-kappaB during the time course of infection. (+info)
Herpes simplex virus induces intracellular redistribution of E2F4 and accumulation of E2F pocket protein complexes.
Accumulation of E2F-p107 and E2F-pRB DNA binding complexes occurred after herpes simplex virus infection of U2-OS cells. Accumulation of E2F-p107 also occurred by 4 h p.i. in C33 cells. This corresponded to a time when host DNA synthesis was reduced by 50%, and lagged by >/=1 h, the onset of viral DNA synthesis. To determine the basis for increased nuclear E2F complexes, we investigated the effects of virus infection on the intracellular distribution of the E2F-dependent DNA binding complexes and their protein constituents. Western blot analyses of whole cell extracts revealed that amounts of E2F4, E2F1, DP1, and p107 remained unchanged after infection of C33 cells. Analysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, however, revealed that cytoplasmic E2F4 decreased and nuclear E2F4 increased. This correlated with a loss of cytoplasmic E2F DNA-binding activity and a corresponding increase in nuclear DNA-binding activity. Concomitant with its redistribution, the apparent molecular weight of total and p107-associated E2F4 increased, at least partially as a result of protein phosphorylation. Increased nuclear E2F-pRB in U2-OS cells was accompanied by the conversion of pRB from a hyper- to a hypophosphorylated state. Infection of U2-OS cells with viral mutants indicated that viral protein IE ICP4 was necessary for the decrease in cytoplasmic E2F-p107, and that viral protein DE ICP8 was required for nuclear accumulation of p107-E2F. In contrast, ICP8 was not required for accumulation of E2F-pRB. These results indicate that the increase in E2F-p107 may be explained by the redistribution and modification of E2F4 and the increase in E2F-pRB by modification of pRB. (+info)