Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins.
Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells. (+info
Activation and repression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcription by RB binding proteins.
The Cdk inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a negative regulator of the cell cycle, although its expression is induced by a number of mitogens that promote cell proliferation. We have found that E2F1 and E2F3, transcription factors that activate genes required for cell cycle progression, are strong activators of the p21 promoter. In contrast, HBP1 (HMG-box protein-1), a novel retinoblastoma protein-binding protein, can repress the p21 promoter and inhibit induction of p21 expression by E2F. Both E2Fs and HBP1 regulate p21 transcription through cis-acting elements located between nucleotides -119 to +16 of the p21 promoter and the DNA binding domains of each of these proteins are required for activity. Sequences between -119 and -60 basepairs containing four Sp1 consensus elements and two noncanonical E2F binding sites are of major importance for E2F activation, although E2F1 and E2F3 differ in the extent of their ability to activate expression when this segment is deleted. The opposing effects of E2Fs and HBP1 on p21 promoter activity suggest that interplay between these factors may determine the level of p21 transcription in vivo. (+info
Neural precursor cells differentiating in the absence of Rb exhibit delayed terminal mitosis and deregulated E2F 1 and 3 activity.
The severe neurological deficit in embryos carrying null mutations for the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene suggests that Rb plays a crucial role in neurogenesis. While developing neurons undergo apoptosis in vivo neural precursor cells cultured from Rb-deficient embryos appear to differentiate and survive. To determine whether Rb is an essential regulator of the intrinsic pathway modulating terminal mitosis we examined the terminal differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells and bFGF-dependent neural stem cells derived from Rb-deficient mice. Although Rb -/- neural precursor cells are able to differentiate in vitro we show that these cells exhibit a significant delay in terminal mitosis relative to wild-type cells. Furthermore, Rb -/- cells surviving in vitro exhibit an upregulation of p107 that is found in complexes with E2F3. This suggests that p107 may partially compensate for the loss of Rb in neural precursor cells. Functional ablation of Rb family proteins by adenovirus-mediated delivery of an E1A N-terminal mutant results in apoptosis in Rb-deficient cells, consistent with the interpretation that other Rb family proteins may facilitate differentiation and survival. While p107 is upregulated and interacts with the putative Rb target E2F3 in neural precursor cells, our results indicate that it clearly cannot restore normal E2F regulation. Rb-deficient cells exhibit a significant enhancement of E2F 1 and 3 activity throughout differentiation concomitant with the aberrant expression of E2F-inducible genes. In these studies we show that Rb is essential for the regulation of E2F 1 and 3 activity as well as the onset of terminal mitosis in neural precursor cells. (+info
Regulation of Rb and E2F by signal transduction cascades: divergent effects of JNK1 and p38 kinases.
The E2F transcription factor plays a major role in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis, but it is not clear how it is regulated by non-mitogenic signaling cascades. Here we report that two kinases involved in signal transduction have opposite effects on E2F function: the stress-induced kinase JNK1 inhibits E2F1 activity whereas the related p38 kinase reverses Rb-mediated repression of E2F1. JNK1 phosphorylates E2F1 in vitro, and co-transfection of JNK1 reduces the DNA binding activity of E2F1; treatment of cells with TNFalpha had a similar effect. Fas stimulation of Jurkat cells is known to induce p38 kinase and we find a pronounced increase in Rb phosphorylation within 30 min of Fas stimulation. Phosphorylation of Rb correlated with a dissociation of E2F and increased transcriptional activity. The inactivation of Rb by Fas was blocked by SB203580, a p38-specific inhibitor, as well as a dominant-negative p38 construct; cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors as well as dominant-negative cdks had no effect. These results suggest that Fas-mediated inactivation of Rb is mediated via the p38 kinase, independent of cdks. The Rb/E2F-mediated cell cycle regulatory pathway appears to be a normal target for non-mitogenic signaling cascades and could be involved in mediating the cellular effects of such signals. (+info
Regulation of endogenous E2F1 stability by the retinoblastoma family proteins.
Certain E2F transcription factor species play a pivotal role in regulating cell-cycle progression. The activity of E2F1, a protein with neoplastic transforming activity when unregulated, is tightly controlled at the transcriptional level during G0 exit. In addition, during this interval, the stability of endogenous E2F1 protein increased markedly. E2F1 stability also was dynamically regulated during myogenic differentiation and in response to gamma irradiation. One or more retinoblastoma family proteins likely participate in the stability process, because simian virus 40 T antigen disrupted E2F1 stability regulation during G1 exit in a manner dependent on its ability to bind to pocket proteins. Thus, endogenous E2F1 function is regulated by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional control mechanisms. (+info
C/EBPalpha regulates formation of S-phase-specific E2F-p107 complexes in livers of newborn mice.
We previously showed that the rate of hepatocyte proliferation in livers from newborn C/EBPalpha knockout mice was increased. An examination of cell cycle-related proteins showed that the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 level was reduced in the knockout animals compared to that in wild-type littermates. Here we show additional cell cycle-associated proteins that are affected by C/EBPalpha. We have observed that C/EBPalpha controls the composition of E2F complexes through interaction with the retinoblastoma (Rb)-like protein, p107, during prenatal liver development. S-phase-specific E2F complexes containing E2F, DP, cdk2, cyclin A, and p107 are observed in the developing liver. In wild-type animals these complexes disappear by day 18 of gestation and are no longer present in the newborn animals. In the C/EBPalpha mutant, the S-phase-specific complexes do not diminish and persist to birth. The elevation of levels of the S-phase-specific E2F-p107 complexes in C/EBPalpha knockout mice correlates with the increased expression of several E2F-dependent genes such as those that encode cyclin A, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p107. The C/EBPalpha-mediated regulation of E2F binding is specific, since the deletion of another C/EBP family member, C/EBPbeta, does not change the pattern of E2F binding during prenatal liver development. The addition of bacterially expressed, purified His-C/EBPalpha to the E2F binding reaction resulted in the disruption of E2F complexes containing p107 in nuclear extracts from C/EBPalpha knockout mouse livers. Ectopic expression of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells also leads to a reduction of E2F complexes containing Rb family proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed an interaction of C/EBPalpha with p107 but none with cdk2, E2F1, or cyclin A. A region of C/EBPalpha that has sequence similarity to E2F is sufficient for the disruption of the E2F-p107 complexes. Despite its role as a DNA binding protein, C/EBPalpha brings about a change in E2F complex composition through a protein-protein interaction. The disruption of E2F-p107 complexes correlates with C/EBPalpha-mediated growth arrest of hepatocytes in newborn animals. (+info
Overexpression of D-type cyclins, E2F-1, SV40 large T antigen and HPV16 E7 rescue cell cycle arrest of tsBN462 cells caused by the CCG1/TAF(II)250 mutation.
tsBN462 cells, which have a point mutation in CCG1/TAF(II)250, a component of TFIID complex, arrest in G1 at the nonpermissive temperature of 39.5 degrees C. Overexpression of D-type cyclins rescued the cell cycle arrest of tsBN462 cells, suggesting that the cell cycle arrest was through Rb. Consistent with this, overexpression of E2F-1, whose function is repressed by the hypophosphorylated form of Rb, also rescued the cell cycle arrest. Moreover, expression of the viral oncoproteins SV40 large T antigen and HPV16 E7, which both bind Rb and inactivate its function, rescued the cell cycle arrest, whereas HPV16 E6 did not. Mutation of the Rb-binding motif in E7 abrogated its ability to rescue the cell cycle arrest. Expression of exogenous cyclin D1, SV40 large T antigen or CCG1/TAF(II)250 increased cyclin A expression at 39.5 degrees C. Coexpression of HPV16 E7 and adenovirus E1b19K, which blocks apoptosis, rescued the proliferation of tsBN462 cells at 38.5 degrees C. To investigate the mechanism underlying the lack of cyclin D1 expression, deletion analysis of cyclin D1 promoter was performed. The 0.15 kbp cyclin D1 core promoter region, which lacks any transcription factor binding motifs, still exhibited a temperature-sensitive phenotype in tsBN462 cells suggesting that CCG1/TAF(II)250 is critical for the function of the cyclin D1 core promoter. (+info
Involvement of retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F transcription factors during photodynamic therapy of human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a promising new therapeutic modality for the management of a variety of solid malignancies and many non-malignant diseases, is a bimodal therapy using a porphyrin based photosensitizing chemical and visible light. The proper understanding of the mechanism of PDT-mediated cancer cell-kill may result in improving the efficacy of this treatment modality. Earlier we have shown (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; 95: 6977-6982, 1998) that silicon phthalocyanine (Pc4)-PDT results in an induction of the cyclin kinase inhibitor WAF1/CIP1/p21 which, by inhibiting cyclins (E and D1) and cyclin dependent kinases (cdk2 and cdk6), results in a G0/G1-phase arrest followed by apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431. We have also demonstrated the generation of nitric oxide during PDT-mediated apoptosis (Cancer Res.; 58: 1785-1788, 1998). Retinoblastoma (pRb) and E2F family transcription factors are important proteins, which regulate the G1-->S transition in the cell cycle. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of pRb-E2F/DP machinery as an important contributor of PDT-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in the hyper-phosphorylated form of pRb at 3, 6 and 12 h post-PDT with a relative increase in hypo-phosphorylated pRb. Western blot analysis also revealed that PDT-caused decrease in phosphorylation of pRb occurs at serine-780. The ELISA data demonstrated a time dependent accumulation of hypo-phosphorylated pRb by PDT. This response was accompanied with down-regulation in the protein expression of all five E2F (1-5) family transcription factors, and their heterodimeric partners DP1 and DP2. These results suggest that Pc4-PDT of A431 cells results in a down regulation of hyper-phosphorylated pRb protein with a relative increase in hypo-phosphorylated pRb that, in turn, compromises with the availability of free E2F. We suggest that these events result in a stoppage of the cell cycle progression at G1-->S transition thereby leading to a G0/G1 phase arrest and a subsequent apoptotic cell death. These data provide an evidence for the involvement of pRb-E2F/DP machinery in PDT-mediated cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis. (+info