Laminin-alpha1 globular domains 3 and 4 induce heterotrimeric G protein binding to alpha-syntrophin's PDZ domain and alter intracellular Ca2+ in muscle. (1/29)

Alpha-syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). It is firmly attached to the dystrophin cytoskeleton via a unique COOH-terminal domain and is associated indirectly with alpha-dystroglycan, which binds to extracellular matrix laminin. Syntrophin contains two pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and one PDZ domain. Because PH domains of other proteins are known to bind the betagamma-subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins, whether this is also a property of syntrophin was investigated. Isolated syntrophin from rabbit skeletal muscle binds bovine brain Gbetagamma-subunits in gel blot overlay experiments. Laminin-1-Sepharose or specific antibodies against syntrophin, alpha- and beta-dystroglycan, or dystrophin precipitate a complex with Gbetagamma from crude skeletal muscle microsomes. Bacterially expressed syntrophin fusion proteins and truncation mutants allowed mapping of Gbetagamma binding to syntrophin's PDZ domain; this is a novel function for PDZ domains. When laminin-1 is bound, maximal binding of Gsalpha and Gbetagamma occurs and active Gsalpha, measured as GTP-gamma35S bound, decreases. Because intracellular Ca2+ is elevated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Gsalpha is known to activate the dihydropyridine receptor Ca2+ channel, whether laminin also altered intracellular Ca2+ was investigated. Laminin-1 decreases active (GTP-gammaS-bound) Gsalpha, and the Ca2+ channel is inhibited by laminin-1. The laminin alpha1-chain globular domains 4 and 5 region, the region bound by DGC alpha-dystroglycan, is sufficient to cause an effect, and an antibody that specifically blocks laminin binding to alpha-dystroglycan inhibits Gbeta binding by syntrophin in C2C12 myotubes. These observations suggest that DGC is a matrix laminin, G protein-coupled receptor.  (+info)

Impact of sarcoglycan complex on mechanical signal transduction in murine skeletal muscle. (2/29)

Loss of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) or a subset of its components can lead to muscular dystrophy. However, the patterns of symptoms differ depending on which proteins are affected. Absence of dystrophin leads to loss of the entire DGC and is associated with susceptibility to contractile injury. In contrast, muscles lacking gamma-sarcoglycan (gamma-SG) display little mechanical fragility and still develop severe pathology. Animals lacking dystrophin or gamma-SG were used to identify DGC components critical for sensing dynamic mechanical load. Extensor digitorum longus muscles from 7-wk-old normal (C57), dystrophin- null (mdx), and gamma-SG-null (gsg(-/-)) mice were subjected to a series of eccentric contractions, after which ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels were determined. At rest, both dystrophic strains had significantly higher ERK1 phosphorylation, and gsg(-/-) muscle also had heightened ERK2 phosphorylation compared with wild-type controls. Eccentric contractions produced a significant and transient increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in normal muscle, whereas the mdx strain displayed no significant proportional change of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after eccentric contraction. Muscles from gsg(-/-) mice had no significant increase in ERK1 phosphorylation; however, ERK2 phosphorylation was more robust than in C57 controls. The reduction in mechanically induced ERK1 phosphorylation in gsg(-/-) muscle was not dependent on age or severity of phenotype, because muscle from both young and old (age 20 wk) animals exhibited a reduced response. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that gamma-SG was phosphorylated in normal muscle after eccentric contractions, indicating that members of the DGC are modified in response to mechanical perturbation. This study provides evidence that the SGs are involved in the transduction of mechanical information in skeletal muscle, potentially unique from the entire DGC.  (+info)

Dystrophin-glycoproteins associated in congenital muscular dystrophy: immunohistochemical analysis of 59 Brazilian cases. (3/29)

The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are heterogeneous muscular diseases with early and dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy. Many different subtypes have been genetically identified and most phenotypes not yet identified belong to the merosin-positive (MP) CMD subgroup. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the main proteins of the dystrophin-glycoproteins associated complex in muscle biopsy of patients with different CMD phenotypes, for investigating a possible correlation with clinical and histopathological data. METHOD: Fifty-nine patients with CMD had clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical data evaluated: 32 had MP-CMD, 23 CMD with merosin deficiency (MD-CMD), one Ullrich phenotype and three Walker-Warburg disease. RESULTS: Dystrophin and dysferlin were normal in all; among the patients with MD-CMD, merosin deficiency was partial in nine who showed the same clinical severity as those with total deficiency; the reduced expression of alpha-sarcoglycan (SG) and alpha-dystroglycan (DG) showed statistically significant correlation with severe MD-CMD phenotype. CONCLUSION: There is a greater relationship between merosin and the former proteins; among MP-CMD patients, no remarkable immunohistochemical/phenotypical correlations were found, although the reduced expression of beta-DG had showed statistically significant correlation with severe phenotype and marked fibrosis on muscular biopsy.  (+info)

The muscular dystrophies: from genes to therapies. (4/29)

The genetic basis of many muscular disorders, including many of the more common muscular dystrophies, is now known. Clinically, the recent genetic advances have improved diagnostic capabilities, but they have not yet provided clues about treatment or management. Thanks to better management strategies and therapeutic interventions, however, many patients with a muscular dystrophy are more active and are living longer. Physical therapists, therefore, are more likely to see a patient with a muscular dystrophy, so understanding these muscle disorders and their management is essential. Physical therapy offers the most promise in caring for the majority of patients with these conditions, because it is unlikely that advances in gene therapy will significantly alter their clinical treatment in the near future. This perspective covers some of the basic molecular biological advances together with the clinical manifestations of the muscular dystrophies and the latest approaches to their management.  (+info)

Dystroglycan receptor is involved in integrin activation in intestinal epithelia. (5/29)

The dystroglycans (alpha-DG and beta-DG), which play important roles in the formation of basement membranes, have been well studied in skeletal muscle and nerve, but their expression and localization in intestinal epithelial cells has not been previously investigated. Here, we demonstrated that the DG complex, composed of alpha-DG, beta-DG, and utrophin, is specifically expressed in the basolateral membrane of the Caco-2-BBE monolayer. The DG complex coprecipitated with beta(1)-integrin, suggesting a possible interaction among these proteins. In addition, we observed that activation of DG receptors by laminin-1 enhanced the interaction between beta(1)-integrin and laminin-1, whereas activation of DG receptors by laminin-2 reduced the interaction between beta(1)-integrin and laminin-2. Finally, we demonstrated that the intracellular COOH-terminal tail of beta-DG and its binding to the DG binding domain of utrophin are crucial for the interactions between laminin-1/-2 and beta(1)-integrin. Collectively, these novel results indicate that dystroglycans play important roles in the regulation of interactions between intestinal epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Platelet adhesion: structural and functional diversity of short dystrophin and utrophins in the formation of dystrophin-associated-protein complexes related to actin dynamics. (6/29)

Platelets are dynamic cell fragments that modify their shape during activation. Utrophin and dystrophins are minor actin-binding proteins present in muscle and non-muscle cytoskeleton. In the present study, we characterised the pattern of Dp71 isoforms and utrophin gene products by immunoblot in human platelets. Two new dystrophin isoforms were found, Dp71f and Dp71 d, as well as the Up71 isoform and the dystrophin-associated proteins, alpha and beta -dystrobrevins. Distribution of Dp71d/Dp71delta110m, Up400/Up71 and dystrophin-associated proteins in relation to the actin cytoskeleton was evaluated by confocal microscopy in both resting and platelets adhered on glass. Formation of two dystrophin-associated protein complexes (Dp71d/Dp71delta110m approximately DAPC and Up400/Up71 approximately DAPC) was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and their distribution in relation to the actin cytoskeleton was characterised during platelet adhesion. The Dp71d/Dp71delta100m approximately DAPC is maintained mainly at the granulomere and is associated with dynamic structures during activation by adhesion to thrombin-coated surfaces. Participation of both Dp71d/Dp71delta110m approximately DAPC and Up400/Up71 approximately DAPC in the biological roles of the platelets is discussed.  (+info)

Biglycan binds to alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycan and regulates their expression during development. (7/29)

The dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), which links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, is essential for muscle cell survival, and is defective in a wide range of muscular dystrophies. The DAPC contains two transmembrane subcomplexes-the dystroglycans and the sarcoglycans. Although several extracellular binding partners have been identified for the dystroglycans, none have been described for the sarcoglycan subcomplex. Here we show that the small leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteoglycan biglycan binds to alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycan as judged by ligand blot overlay and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Our studies with biglycan-decorin chimeras show that alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycan bind to distinct sites on the polypeptide core of biglycan. Both biglycan proteoglycan as well as biglycan polypeptide lacking glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains are components of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex isolated from adult skeletal muscle membranes. Finally, our immunohistochemical and biochemical studies with biglycan null mice show that the expression of alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycan is selectively reduced in muscle from young (P14-P21) animals, while levels in adult muscle (> or = P35) are unchanged. We conclude that biglycan is a ligand for two members of the sarcoglycan complex and regulates their expression at discrete developmental ages.  (+info)

Structural and functional analysis of the sarcoglycan-sarcospan subcomplex. (8/29)

Sarcospan is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that forms a tight subcomplex with the sarcoglycans. The sarcoglycan-sarcospan subcomplex functions to stabilize alpha-dystroglycan at the plasma membrane and perturbations of this subcomplex are associated with autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. In order to characterize protein interactions within this subcomplex, we first demonstrate that sarcospan forms homo-oligomers within the membrane. Experiments with a panel of site-directed mutants reveal that proper structure of the large extracellular loop is an important determinant of oligo formation. Furthermore, the intracellular N- and C-termini contribute to stability of sarcospan-mediated webs. Point mutation of each cysteine residue reveals that Cys 162 and Cys 164 within the large extracellular loop form disulfide bridges, which are critical for proper sarcospan structure. The extracellular domain of sarcospan also forms the main binding site for the sarcoglycans. We propose a model whereby sarcospan forms homo-oligomers that cluster the components of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex within the membrane.  (+info)