Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.
Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info)
The EH and SH3 domain Ese proteins regulate endocytosis by linking to dynamin and Eps15.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a multistep process which requires interaction between a number of conserved proteins. We have cloned two mammalian genes which code for a number of endocytic adaptor proteins. Two of these proteins, termed Ese1 and Ese2, contain two N-terminal EH domains, a central coiled-coil domain and five C-terminal SH3 domains. Ese1 is constitutively associated with Eps15 proteins to form a complex with at least 14 protein-protein interaction surfaces. Yeast two-hybrid assays have revealed that Ese1 EH and SH3 domains bind epsin family proteins and dynamin, respectively. Overexpression of Ese1 is sufficient to block clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured cells, presumably through disruption of higher order protein complexes, which are assembled on the endogenous Ese1-Eps15 scaffold. The Ese1-Eps15 scaffold therefore links dynamin, epsin and other endocytic pathway components. (+info)
Importance of the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
The GTPase dynamin plays an essential role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis   . Substantial evidence suggests that dynamin oligomerisation around the necks of endocytosing vesicles and subsequent dynamin-catalysed GTP hydrolysis is responsible for membrane fission  . The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of dynamin has previously been shown to interact with phosphoinositides, but it has not been determined whether this interaction is essential for dynamin's function in endocytosis    . In this study, we address the in vivo function of the PH domain of dynamin by assaying the effects of deletions and point mutations in this region on transferrin uptake in COS-7 fibroblasts. Overexpression of a dynamin construct lacking its entire PH domain potently blocked transferrin uptake, as did overexpression of a dynamin construct containing a mutation in the first variable loop of the PH domain. Structural modelling of this latter mutant suggested that the lysine residue at position 535 (Lys535) may be critical in the coordination of phosphoinositides, and indeed, the purified mutant no longer interacted with lipid nanotubes. Interestingly, the inhibitory phenotype of cells expressing this dynamin mutant was partially relieved by a second mutation in the carboxy-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD), one that prevents dynamin from binding to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of amphiphysin. These data demonstrate that dynamin's interaction with phosphoinositides through its PH domain is essential for endocytosis. These findings also support our hypothesis that PRD-SH3 domain interactions are important in the recruitment of dynamin to sites of endocytosis. (+info)
Dominant-negative inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis by a dynamin-1 mutant with a defective pleckstrin homology domain.
The dynamins are 100 kDa GTPases involved in the scission of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane . Dynamin-1 is present in solution as a tetramer , and undergoes further self-assembly following its recruitment to coated pits to form higher-order oligomers that resemble 'collars' around the necks of nascent coated buds  . GTP hydrolysis by dynamin in these collars is thought to accompany the 'pinching off' of endocytic vesicles  . Dynamin contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds phosphoinositides  , which in turn enhance both the GTPase activity    and self-assembly   of dynamin. We recently showed that the dynamin PH domain binds phosphoinositides only when it is oligomeric . Here, we demonstrate that interactions between the dynamin PH domain and phosphoinositides are important for dynamin function in vivo. Full-length dynamin-1 containing mutations that abolish phosphoinositide binding by its PH domain was a dominant-negative inhibitor of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Mutated dynamin-1 with both a defective PH domain and impaired GTP binding and hydrolysis also inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis. These findings suggest that the role of the PH domain in dynamin function differs from that seen for other PH domains. We propose that high-avidity binding to phosphoinositide-rich regions of the membrane by the multiple PH domains in a dynamin oligomer is critical for dynamin's ability to complete vesicle budding. (+info)
Internalization of the TXA2 receptor alpha and beta isoforms. Role of the differentially spliced cooh terminus in agonist-promoted receptor internalization.
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) potently stimulates platelet aggregation and smooth muscle constriction and is thought to play a role in myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and bronchial asthma. The TXA2 receptor (TXA2R) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is found as two alternatively spliced isoforms, alpha (343 residues) and beta (407 residues), which share the first 328 residues. In the present report, we demonstrate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy that the TXA2Rbeta, but not the TXA2Ralpha, undergoes agonist-induced internalization when expressed in HEK293 cells as well as several other cell types. Various dominant negative mutants were used to demonstrate that the internalization of the TXA2Rbeta is dynamin-, GRK-, and arrestin-dependent in HEK293 cells, suggesting the involvement of receptor phosphorylation and clathrin-coated pits in this process. Interestingly, the agonist-stimulated internalization of both the alpha and beta isoforms, but not of a mutant truncated after residue 328, can be promoted by overexpression of arrestin-3, identifying the C-tails of both receptors as necessary in arrestin-3 interaction. Simultaneous mutation of two dileucine motifs in the C-tail of TXA2Rbeta did not affect agonist-promoted internalization. Analysis of various C-tail deletion mutants revealed that a region between residues 355 and 366 of the TXA2Rbeta is essential for agonist-promoted internalization. These data demonstrate that alternative splicing of the TXA2R plays a critical role in regulating arrestin binding and subsequent receptor internalization. (+info)
Gi-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2)-bound dynamin-II by lysophosphatidic acid.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the prototypic G-protein-coupled receptor agonist that activates the Ras-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade through pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive Gi and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. We recently detected a 100 kDa protein (p100) that binds to the C-terminal SH3 domain of growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in a PTX-sensitive manner in LPA-treated Rat-1 cells [Kranenburg, Verlaan, Hordijk and Moolenaar (1997) EMBO J. 16, 3097-3105]. Through glutathione S-transferase-Grb2 affinity purification and microsequencing, we have now identified p100 as dynamin-II, a GTPase that regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that in Rat-1 cells, Grb2-bound dynamin-II is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPA in a PTX-sensitive manner. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2-bound dynamin-II may be a critical event in Gi-mediated activation of the Ras-MAP kinase cascade in fibroblasts. (+info)
Dynamin II is involved in endocytosis but not in the formation of transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network.
Dynamins are a family of approximately 100-kDa GTPases that are thought to play a pivotal role in the formation of endocytic coated vesicles. There are three dynamin genes in mammals: dynamin I is neuron-specific, dynamin II shows ubiquitous expression, and dynamin III is expressed in testis, brain, and lung. However, most studies on the functions of dynamins to date have been restricted to dynamin I. In the present study, we show that, like dynamin I, dynamin II is involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. While this study was in progress, Jones et al. [Jones, S.M., Howell, K.E., Henley, J.R., Cao, H., and McNiven, M.A. (1998) Science 279, 573-577] reported that dynamin II is localized in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and involved in the formation of constitutive transport vesicles and clathrin-coated vesicles from this compartment. However, immunofluorescence analyses and experiments using cells transfected with dominant-negative dynamin II failed to show any evidence for localization of dynamin II in the TGN or for its involvement in vesicle formation from this compartment. Our data thus indicate that dynamin II is involved in endocytosis but not in the formation of transport vesicles from the TGN. (+info)
Multiple distinct coiled-coils are involved in dynamin self-assembly.
Dynamin, a 100-kDa GTPase, has been implicated to be involved in synaptic vesicle recycling, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and other membrane sorting processes. Dynamin self-assembles into helical collars around the necks of coated pits and other membrane invaginations and mediates membrane scission. In vitro, dynamin has been reported to exist as dimers, tetramers, ring-shaped oligomers, and helical polymers. In this study we sought to define self-assembly regions in dynamin. Deletion of two closely spaced sequences near the dynamin-1 C terminus abolished self-association as assayed by co-immunoprecipitation and the yeast interaction trap, and reduced the sedimentation coefficient from 7.5 to 4.5 S. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and equilibrium ultracentrifugation of synthetic peptides revealed coiled-coil formation within the C-terminal assembly domain and at a third, centrally located site. Two of the peptides formed tetramers, supporting a role for each in the monomer-tetramer transition and providing novel insight into the organization of the tetramer. Partial deletions of the C-terminal assembly domain reversed the dominant inhibition of endocytosis by dynamin-1 GTPase mutants. Self-association was also observed between different dynamin isoforms. Taken altogether, our results reveal two distinct coiled-coil-containing assembly domains that can recognize other dynamin isoforms and mediate endocytic inhibition. In addition, our data strongly suggests a parallel model for dynamin subunit self-association. (+info)