Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.
Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info)
Dominant-negative inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis by a dynamin-1 mutant with a defective pleckstrin homology domain.
The dynamins are 100 kDa GTPases involved in the scission of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane . Dynamin-1 is present in solution as a tetramer , and undergoes further self-assembly following its recruitment to coated pits to form higher-order oligomers that resemble 'collars' around the necks of nascent coated buds  . GTP hydrolysis by dynamin in these collars is thought to accompany the 'pinching off' of endocytic vesicles  . Dynamin contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds phosphoinositides  , which in turn enhance both the GTPase activity    and self-assembly   of dynamin. We recently showed that the dynamin PH domain binds phosphoinositides only when it is oligomeric . Here, we demonstrate that interactions between the dynamin PH domain and phosphoinositides are important for dynamin function in vivo. Full-length dynamin-1 containing mutations that abolish phosphoinositide binding by its PH domain was a dominant-negative inhibitor of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Mutated dynamin-1 with both a defective PH domain and impaired GTP binding and hydrolysis also inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis. These findings suggest that the role of the PH domain in dynamin function differs from that seen for other PH domains. We propose that high-avidity binding to phosphoinositide-rich regions of the membrane by the multiple PH domains in a dynamin oligomer is critical for dynamin's ability to complete vesicle budding. (+info)
Dynamin II is involved in endocytosis but not in the formation of transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network.
Dynamins are a family of approximately 100-kDa GTPases that are thought to play a pivotal role in the formation of endocytic coated vesicles. There are three dynamin genes in mammals: dynamin I is neuron-specific, dynamin II shows ubiquitous expression, and dynamin III is expressed in testis, brain, and lung. However, most studies on the functions of dynamins to date have been restricted to dynamin I. In the present study, we show that, like dynamin I, dynamin II is involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. While this study was in progress, Jones et al. [Jones, S.M., Howell, K.E., Henley, J.R., Cao, H., and McNiven, M.A. (1998) Science 279, 573-577] reported that dynamin II is localized in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and involved in the formation of constitutive transport vesicles and clathrin-coated vesicles from this compartment. However, immunofluorescence analyses and experiments using cells transfected with dominant-negative dynamin II failed to show any evidence for localization of dynamin II in the TGN or for its involvement in vesicle formation from this compartment. Our data thus indicate that dynamin II is involved in endocytosis but not in the formation of transport vesicles from the TGN. (+info)
Multiple distinct coiled-coils are involved in dynamin self-assembly.
Dynamin, a 100-kDa GTPase, has been implicated to be involved in synaptic vesicle recycling, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and other membrane sorting processes. Dynamin self-assembles into helical collars around the necks of coated pits and other membrane invaginations and mediates membrane scission. In vitro, dynamin has been reported to exist as dimers, tetramers, ring-shaped oligomers, and helical polymers. In this study we sought to define self-assembly regions in dynamin. Deletion of two closely spaced sequences near the dynamin-1 C terminus abolished self-association as assayed by co-immunoprecipitation and the yeast interaction trap, and reduced the sedimentation coefficient from 7.5 to 4.5 S. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and equilibrium ultracentrifugation of synthetic peptides revealed coiled-coil formation within the C-terminal assembly domain and at a third, centrally located site. Two of the peptides formed tetramers, supporting a role for each in the monomer-tetramer transition and providing novel insight into the organization of the tetramer. Partial deletions of the C-terminal assembly domain reversed the dominant inhibition of endocytosis by dynamin-1 GTPase mutants. Self-association was also observed between different dynamin isoforms. Taken altogether, our results reveal two distinct coiled-coil-containing assembly domains that can recognize other dynamin isoforms and mediate endocytic inhibition. In addition, our data strongly suggests a parallel model for dynamin subunit self-association. (+info)
Role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in CXCR2 sequestration, resensitization, and signal transduction.
CXCR2 is a seven-transmembrane receptor that transduces intracellular signals in response to the chemokines interleukin-8, melanoma growth-stimulatory activity/growth-regulatory protein, and other ELR motif-containing CXC chemokines by coupling to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. In this study, we explored the mechanism responsible for ligand-induced CXCR2 endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that dynamin, a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is essential for CXCR2 endocytosis and resensitization. In HEK293 cells, dynamin I K44A, a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin that inhibits the clathrin-mediated endocytosis, blocks the ligand-stimulated CXCR2 sequestration. Furthermore, co-expression of dynamin I K44A significantly delays dephosphorylation of CXCR2 after ligand stimulation, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in receptor dephosphorylation and resensitization. In addition, ligand-mediated receptor down-regulation is attenuated when receptor internalization is inhibited by dynamin I K44A. Interestingly, inhibition of receptor endocytosis by dynamin I K44A does not affect the CXCR2-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Most significantly, our data indicate that the ligand-stimulated receptor endocytosis is required for CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis in HEK293 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that clathrin-mediated CXCR2 internalization is crucial for receptor endocytosis, resensitization, and chemotaxis. (+info)
U50,488H-induced internalization of the human kappa opioid receptor involves a beta-arrestin- and dynamin-dependent mechanism. Kappa receptor internalization is not required for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.
Agonist-promoted internalization of some G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to mediate receptor desensitization, resensitization, and down-regulation. In this study, we investigated whether opioids induced internalization of the human and rat kappa opioid receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the potential mechanisms involved in this process and its possible role in activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Exposure of the human kappa receptor to the agonists U50,488H, U69,593, ethylketocyclazocine, or tifluadom, but not etorphine, promoted receptor internalization. However, none of these agonists induced significant internalization of the rat kappa opioid receptor. U50, 488H-induced human kappa receptor internalization was time- and concentration-dependent, with 30-40% of the receptors internalized following a 30-min exposure to 1 microM U50,488H. Agonist removal resulted in the receptors gradually returning to the cell surface over a 60-min period. The antagonist naloxone blocked U50, 488H-induced internalization without affecting internalization itself, while pretreatment with pertussis toxin had no effect on U50, 488H-induced internalization. In contrast, incubation with sucrose (0.4-0.8 M) significantly reduced U50,488H-induced internalization of the kappa receptor. While co-expression of the wild type GRK2, beta-arrestin, or dynamin I had no effect on kappa receptor internalization, co-expression of the dominant negative mutants GRK2-K220R, beta-arrestin (319-418), or dynamin I-K44A significantly inhibited receptor internalization. Whether receptor internalization is critical for MAP kinase activation was next investigated. Co-expression of dominant negative mutants of beta-arrestin or dynamin I, which greatly reduced U50,488H-induced internalization, did not affect MAP kinase activation by the agonist. In addition, etorphine, which did not promote human kappa receptor internalization, was able to fully activate MAP kinase. Moreover, U50,488H or etorphine stimulation of the rat kappa receptor, which did not undergo internalization, also effectively activated MAP kinase. Thus, U50,488H-induced internalization of the human kappa opioid receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells occurs via a GRK-, beta-arrestin-, and dynamin I-dependent process that likely involves clathrin-coated pits. In addition, internalization of the kappa receptor is not required for activation of MAP kinase. (+info)
Chlamydia infection of epithelial cells expressing dynamin and Eps15 mutants: clathrin-independent entry into cells and dynamin-dependent productive growth.
Chlamydiae enter epithelial cells via a mechanism that still remains to be fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the pathway of entry of C. psittaci GPIC and C. trachomatis LGV/L2 into HeLa cells and demonstrated that it does not depend on clathrin coated vesicle formation. We used mutant cell lines defective in clathrin-mediated endocytosis due to overexpression of dominant negative mutants of either dynamin I or Eps15 proteins. When clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by overexpression of the dynK44A mutant of dynamin I (defective in GTPase activity), Chlamydia entry was not affected. However, in these cells there was a dramatic inhibition in the proliferation of Chlamydia and the growth of the chlamydia vacuole (inclusion). When clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by overexpression of an Eps15 dominant negative mutant, the entry and growth of Chlamydia was unaltered. These results indicate that the effect on the growth of Chlamydia in the dynK44A cells was not simply due to a deprivation of nutrients taken up by endocytosis. Instead, the dominant-negative mutant of dynamin most likely affects the vesicular traffic between the Chlamydia inclusion and intracellular membrane compartments. In addition, cytochalasin D inhibited Chlamydia entry by more than 90%, indicating that chlamydiae enter epithelial cells by an actin-dependent mechanism resembling phagocytosis. Finally, dynamin is apparently not involved in the formation of phagocytic vesicles containing Chlamydia. (+info)
The functional role of neutrophils during acute inflammatory responses is regulated by two high affinity interleukin-8 receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) that are rapidly desensitized and internalized upon binding their cognate chemokine ligands. The efficient re-expression of CXCR1 on the surface of neutrophils following agonist-induced internalization suggests that CXCR1 surface receptor turnover may involve regulatory pathways and intracellular factors similar to those regulating beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization and re-expression. To examine the internalization pathway utilized by ligand-activated CXCR1, a CXCR1-GFP construct was transiently expressed in two different cell lines, HEK 293 and RBL-2H3 cells. While interleukin-8 stimulation promoted CXCR1 sequestration in RBL-2H3 cells, receptor internalization in HEK 293 cells required co-expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin proteins. The importance of beta-arrestins in CXCR1 internalization was confirmed by the ability of a dominant negative beta-arrestin 1-V53D mutant to block internalization of CXCR1 in RBL-2H3 cells. A role for dynamin was also demonstrated by the lack of CXCR1 internalization in dynamin I-K44A dominant negative mutant-transfected RBL-2H3 cells. Agonist-promoted co-localization of transferrin and CXCR1-GFP in endosomes of RBL-2H3 cells confirmed that receptor internalization occurs via clathrin-coated vesicles. Our data provides a direct link between agonist-induced internalization of CXCR1 and a requirement for G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, beta-arrestins, and dynamin during this process. (+info)