Detection of mutations of p53 tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic juice and its application to diagnosis of patients with pancreatic cancer: comparison with K-ras mutation.
Because of the difficulty in obtaining biopsy specimens from pancreatic cancer patients, K-ras mutation analysis in pancreatic juice has been used for specific diagnosis. But recently, false positives have been obtained with this method. To improve the genetic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, detection of p53 gene mutation in pancreatic juice was studied. Pancreatic juice was sampled endoscopically. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis was used for p53 mutation analysis. Furthermore, K-ras mutations at codon 12 were also studied in the same pancreatic cancer patients. Of 26 cases of pancreatic cancer, p53 mutations were detected in 11 (42.3%). No mutations were seen in the cases with mucin-producing adenoma nor with chronic pancreatitis. K-ras mutations were detected in 84.0% of cases by RFLP analysis, which has high sensitivity, and in 65.3% by hybridization protection assay, which has high specificity. Using a combination assay with both genes, genetic abnormalities were detected in 92.0% by RFLP and 73.1% by hybridization protection assay including two cases in which p53 alone was positive by both methods. The specificity of p53 mutation for pancreatic cancer is very high. Therefore, simultaneous analysis of p53 and K-ras mutation is suggested to enhance the genetic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (+info)
Anterior seromyotomy with posterior truncal vagotomy in uncomplicated chronic duodenal ulcer.
Thirty cases of uncomplicated duodenal ulcer treated by anterior superficial lesser curvature seromyotomy and posterior truncal vagotomy were studied to evaluate the efficacy of this procedure. There was completeness of vagotomy in all the cases as shown by endoscopic Congo Red test. Twenty-seven cases were asymptomatic at 1-48 months (Mean 22.3) follow up, while 3 patients had controllable side effects such as dumping and diarrhoea. There was no mortality. This procedure is safe, effective and is a favourable alternative to highly selective vagotomy. (+info)
Common anxieties of patients undergoing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy, colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography.
AIMS & METHODS: To investigate the anxieties of patients undergoing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD), colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) in relation to their demographic features, their knowledge and understanding of the procedure, its indication, and their doctors' explanation. A standard questionnaire was filled in consecutively for 280 OGD patients, 64 colonoscopy patients and 50 ERCP patients. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the anxious patients were afraid of pain. There was no difference between the "fearless" and "fearful" groups in terms of source of referral and inpatient/outpatient status. However for all 3 procedures, anxious patients were significantly younger by a mean of 10 years. Females, better educated and OGD patients undergoing the procedure for the first time were more anxious but this difference was not seen with the more complex colonoscopy and ERCP. The more sophisticated ERCP seemed to instill greater anxiety amongst Malay patients. Doctors were significantly more likely to explain the indication for OGD and colonoscopy than how it would be done. This discrepancy was not seen with ERCP where the endoscopists tend to adopt a more personal approach. Most patients prefer to be sedated. (+info)
Ultrasonography of gastric volvulus: "peanut sign".
We report a case of chronic gastric volvulus in which ultrasonography (US) was useful. An 81-year-old woman was hospitalized due to vomiting, and upper gastroduodenoscopy revealed that the stomach was spirally twisted and constricted. An upper gastrointestinal barium study demonstrated an organoaxial-mesenteroaxial combined type gastric volvulus. US showed constriction between the dilated upper stomach body and the lower stomach body similar to a "peanut". Thereafter, the patient's vomiting stopped and follow-up US demonstrated that the constriction of the stomach was loosened. Therefore, we believe that this characteristic US sign paralleled the symptoms of the patient. (+info)
Non-invasive management of Ascaris lumbricoides biliary tact migration: a prospective study in 69 patients from Ecuador.
Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic diseases. Its most feared complication is migration into the biliary tree. Some authors recommend immediate duodenoscopy in all cases of biliary migration, with sphincterotomy for the extraction of the parasites, and surgical extraction in case of intrahepatic ascariasis. We followed prospectively 69 patients with ultrasonographical evidence of migration. Initial treatment consisted of intravenous analgesics and antispasmodics, and albendazole 800 mg by mouth. Only patients with persisting symptoms or with high amylasaemia underwent duodenoscopy, with extraction in case of a visible worm. Surgery was limited to cases with persistent or progressive complications. In 97% of our cases the worms disappeared with noninvasive therapy alone. A duodenoscopy was done in 30 (42%) cases; in 10 (14%) a worm was found in the ampulla of Vater and extracted without sphincterotomy. In none of the 6 cases with A. lumbricoides in the intrahepatic biliary tree did the parasite persist. Only one patient required surgical intervention. Treatment of A. lumbricoides migration to the biliary tract should be principally medical. Duodenoscopy with extraction of a visible worm should be limited to cases with persisting pain and/or hyperamylasaemia. Invasive methods like sphincterotomy and surgery should be restricted to patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. (+info)
Increased enterocyte apoptosis and Fas-Fas ligand system in celiac disease.
Our aim was to evaluate whether increased enterocyte apoptosis was responsible for mucosal flattening in celiac disease (CD), and, since the mechanisms responsible for tissue injury in this condition are unknown, we studied the possibility that the Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) system may be involved. Endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens from 12 patients with untreated and 12 with treated CD and 12 control subjects were evaluated for enterocyte apoptosis by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay and for Fas and FasL expression by immunohistochemistry. A coculture of isolated enterocytes (targets) and purified lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) (effectors) was performed in the absence or presence of an antagonistic ZB4 anti-Fas antibody. We found a significant correlation between the degree of villous atrophy, morphometrically evaluated, and the level of enterocyte apoptosis, suggesting that mucosal flattening is a consequence of exaggerated epithelial cell death. Most celiac enterocytes express Fas, and LPMCs express FasL. The abolishment of enterocyte apoptosis observed in the presence of ZB4 antibody suggests that enterocytes are potential targets of lymphocyte infiltrate. These results directly demonstrate that FasL-mediated apoptosis is a major mechanism responsible for enterocyte death in CD. (+info)
Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer perforations.
BACKGROUND: Most patients with chronic peptic ulcer disease have Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. In the past, immediate acid-reduction surgery has been strongly advocated for perforated peptic ulcers because of the high incidence of ulcer relapse after simple closure. Simple oversewing procedures either by an open or laparoscopic approach together with H. pylori eradication appear to supersede definitive ulcer surgery. METHODS: In 47 consecutive patients (mean age = 64 years, range 27-91) suffering from acute peptic ulcer perforation the preoperative presence of H. pylori (CLO test), the surgical procedure (laparoscopy or open surgery), the outcome of surgery, and the success of H. pylori eradication with a triple regimen were prospectively studied. RESULTS: Of these patients 73.3% were positive for H. pylori, regardless of the previous use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Thirty-eight per cent underwent a simple laparoscopic repair. Conversion rate to laparotomy reached a high of 32%. The main reasons for conversion were the size of the ulcer, and/or diffuse peritonitis for a duration of over 12 hours with fibrous membranes difficult to remove laparoscopically. In the H. pylori positive patients, eradication was successful in 96% of the cases. Mortality and morbidity rates were greater in the laparoscopic group (p < 0.05). Follow-up (median 43.5 months) revealed no need for reoperation for peptic ulcer disease and no mortality. CONCLUSION: We have found a high prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated peptic ulcers. An immediate and appropriate H. pylori eradication therapy for perforated peptic ulcers reduces the relapse rate after simple closure. Response rate to a triple eradication protocol was excellent in the hospital setting. (+info)
Octreotide therapy: a new horizon in treatment of iatrogenic chyloperitoneum.
Chyloperitoneum is a rare and challenging complication of abdominal surgery. We report a case of iatrogenic chyloperitoneum. Infusion of octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, together with total parenteral nutrition followed by medium chain triglyceride diet resulted in rapid resolution of chyloperitoneum. We believe this to be the first report of successful use of octreotide in iatrogenic chyloperitoneum in a child. (+info)