Role of apoptosis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in the development of duodenal ulcer. (1/1325)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori affects gastric epithelium integrity by acceleration of apoptosis. However, it remains unclear what product of the bacteria causes apoptosis, or whether or not the apoptosis is involved in the development of ulcers. AIMS: To elucidate the factor from H pylori that causes acceleration of apoptosis and the role of apoptosis in the development of duodenal ulcer in H pylori infection. PATIENTS: Five H pylori negative healthy volunteers, 47 H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer, and 35 H pylori positive patients with gastric ulcer. METHODS: An endoscopic examination was carried out to diagnose ulcers and determine their clinical stage. To analyse apoptosis, a cell cycle analysis was performed using biopsy specimens. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the urease activity of the H pylori strain and the level of apoptosis induced by this bacterial strain. Moreover, in duodenal ulcer patients infected with H pylori, the patients with an active ulcer exhibited a significantly higher level of apoptosis than those with ulcers at both the healing and scarring stages. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that acceleration of apoptosis in the antral mucosa caused by the urease of H pylori plays a crucial role in the development of ulcers in the duodenum.  (+info)

Comparison of rabeprazole 20 mg versus omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer: a European multicentre study. (2/1325)

BACKGROUND: Rabeprazole sodium is the newest member of a class of substituted benzimidazole molecules known as proton pump inhibitors. Other proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective in healing active duodenal ulcer. METHOD: This randomized, double-blind, multicentre study, conducted at 25 European sites, compared the efficacy and tolerability of rabeprazole and omeprazole in patients with active duodenal ulcers. One hundred and two patients with active duodenal ulcer received rabeprazole 20 mg and 103 patients omeprazole 20 mg once daily for 2 or 4 weeks, with ulcer healing monitored by endoscopy. RESULTS: After 2 weeks, complete ulcer healing was documented in 69% of patients given rabeprazole 20 mg and in 62% of patients given omeprazole 20 mg (N.S.). After 4 weeks, healing rates were 98% in the rabeprazole group and 93% in the omeprazole group (P = 0.083). Rabeprazole-treated patients had significantly greater improvement in daytime pain symptom relief than those treated with omeprazole at the conclusion of the study (P = 0.038). Both drugs were well tolerated over the 4-week treatment period. Mean changes from baseline to end-point in fasting serum gastrin were significantly greater in the rabeprazole group, but at end-point mean values were well within normal limits for both groups. No clinically meaningful changes or other between-group differences were observed in laboratory parameters. CONCLUSION: In this study, rabeprazole produced healing rates equivalent to omeprazole at weeks 2 and 4, and provided significantly greater improvement in daytime pain. Both treatments were well tolerated.  (+info)

The DU-MACH study: eradication of Helicobacter pylori and ulcer healing in patients with acute duodenal ulcer using omeprazole based triple therapy. (3/1325)

AIM: To investigate the efficacy of two omeprazole triple therapies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, ulcer healing and ulcer relapse during a 6-month treatment-free period in patients with active duodenal ulcer. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized study in 15 centres across Canada. Patients (n = 149) were randomized to omeprazole 20 mg once daily (O) or one of two 1-week b. d. eradication regimens: omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 400 mg and clarithromycin 250 mg (OMC) or omeprazole 20 mg, amoxycillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg (OAC). All patients were treated for three additional weeks with omeprazole 20 mg once daily. Ulcer healing was assessed by endoscopy after 4 weeks of study therapy. H. pylori eradication was determined by a 13C-urea breath test and histology, performed at pre-entry, at 4 weeks after the end of all therapy and at 6 months. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat (intention-to-treat) analysis contained 146 patients and the per protocol (per protocol) analysis, 114 patients. The eradication rates were (intention-to-treat/per protocol): OMC-85% and 92%, OAC-78% and 87% and O-0% (O). Ulcer healing (intention-to-treat) was greater than 90% in all groups. The differences in the eradication and relapse rates between O vs. OMC and O vs. OAC were statistically significant (all, P < 0.001). Treatment was well tolerated and compliance was high. CONCLUSION: The OMC and OAC 1-week treatment regimens are safe and effective for eradication, healing and the prevention of relapse in duodenal ulcer patients.  (+info)

The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection. (4/1325)

AIM: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. METHODS: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg, metronidazole 500 mg, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily for 1 week (RMC). In the second study, amoxycillin 1000 mg was substituted for clarithromycin (RMA). Susceptibility testing for metronidazole was performed with the E-test. Follow-up endoscopy was performed after >/= 4 weeks. Antral biopsy samples were taken for histology and urease test, and culture and corpus samples for histology and culture. RESULTS: 112 patients, 53 males, age 55 +/- 14 years (39 duodenal ulcer, 7 gastric ulcer and 66 gastritis) were treated with RMC, and 89 patients, 52 males, age 58 +/- 15 years (23 duodenal ulcer, 7 gastric ulcer and 59 gastritis) were treated with RMA. For RMC, intention-to-treat eradication results were 98% (59/60, 95% CI: 91-100%) and 95% (20/21, 95% CI: 76-100%) for metronidazole susceptible and resistant strains, respectively (P = 0.45). For RMA these figures were 87% (53/61, 95% CI: 76-94%) for metronidazole susceptible strains and 22% (2/9, 95% CI: 3-60%) for resistant strains (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both regimens are effective in metronidazole susceptible strains. However, in contrast to the amoxycillin-containing regimen, that containing clarithromycin is also effective in resistant strains.  (+info)

Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication is more effective than long-term maintenance antisecretory treatment in the prevention of recurrence of duodenal ulcer: a prospective long-term follow-up study. (5/1325)

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment and long term acid suppression maintenance in the natural course of duodenal ulcer has not been directly compared. AIM: To compare in a prospective randomized study the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication on the prevention of recurrence of duodenal ulcer with long-term maintenance acid suppression therapy. METHODS: One hundred and fourteen duodenal ulcer patients were randomized to the treatment over a 12-month period. Fifty-seven of them received triple therapy consisting of 1 g sucralfate q.d.s. for 28 days, 300 mg metronidazole q.d.s. for 14 days and 250 mg clarithromycin q.d.s. for 14 days. Another 57 received 20 mg omeprazole q.d.s. for 12 months. An upper endoscopy was performed before treatment, at 6 weeks, and 2, 6 and 12 months after the first endoscopy. Side-effects were self-recorded and clinical follow-ups were arranged for up to 4.25 years. RESULTS: The ulcer healing rate was 90.2% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 79-97%) in the omeprazole group at 6 weeks as compared to 83.3% (95% CI: 70-93%) in the triple therapy group (P = 0.38). There was a higher success rate of pain control in the omeprazole group. Side-effects were more frequently reported and compliance was poorer in the triple therapy group during the first 4 weeks. During follow-up, more relapses were seen in the omeprazole group (9.8%, 95% CI: 3-21%) than the triple therapy group (4.2%, 95% CI: 1-13%) at 1 year (P = 0.44). All relapses were due to the persistence of H. pylori infection. At the 1 year follow-up, none of the patients who were H. pylori negative had an endoscopic relapse compared to 7 out of 56 patients who remained H. pylori positive (12.5%, 95% CI: 5-24%, P = 0.018). After a mean follow-up of 4.07 years, none of those who remained H. pylori negative had an ulcer relapse while the 11 out of 41 who remained H. pylori positive had an ulcer relapse (26.8%, 95% CI 14-43, P = 0. 0005). CONCLUSIONS: Both regimens were highly effective in healing ulcers. The eradication of H. pylori infection was associated with more side-effects and poor compliance but was more effective than the maintenance therapy in reducing the recurrence of duodenal ulcers. For the prevention of ulcer recurrence, testing of H. pylori status after triple therapy is more important than maintenance therapy.  (+info)

Furazolidone-containing short-term triple therapies are effective in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. (6/1325)

BACKGROUND: A furazolidone-containing therapeutic regimen for Helicobacter pylori infection has attracted special interest in the face of a rising world-wide metronidazole resistant H. pylori, and the expense of currently used antimicrobial regimens. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of furazolidone-containing regimens in eradicating H. pylori. METHODS: One-hundred and forty H. pylori positive patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer or functional dyspepsia received one of four different regimens to eradicate H. pylori. In the first trial, the patients were randomly assigned to receive a 1-week course of furazolidone 100 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 250 mg b.d., with either tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) 240 mg b.d. (FCB group) or lansoprazole 30 mg daily (FCL group). In the second trial, the patients were randomly assigned to receive a 1-week course of clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. and omeprazole 20 mg daily, with either furazolidone 100 mg b.d. (FCO group) or metronidazole 400 mg b.d. (MCO group). Endoscopy was repeated 4 weeks following completion of therapy with re-assessment of H. pylori status on gastric biopsies by histology and culture. RESULTS: Four patients (1 in FCB, 1 in FCO and 2 in MCO groups) dropped out because they refused a follow-up endoscopy. Eradication rates of H. pylori on an intention-to-treat basis in the FCB, FCL, FCO and MCO groups were 91% (32/35, 95% CI: 82-99%), 91% (32/35, CI: 82-99%), 86% (30/35, CI: 74-97%) and 74% (26/35, CI: 60-89%) (all P > 0.05), respectively. Mild side-effects occurred in 15% of the 140 patients. In MCO group, the eradication rate in the patients infected with metronidazole-sensitive isolates of H. pylori was 86%, but dropped to 67% in those with metronidazole-resistance strains (P = 0.198). CONCLUSION: One-week regimens containing furazolidone and clarithromycin in combination with TDB or a proton pump inhibitor fulfil the criteria for successful H. pylori therapy.  (+info)

Proximal gastric vagotomy: effects of two operative techniques on clinical and gastric secretory results. (7/1325)

PGV performed in 39 patients by separating the lesser omentum from the stomach beginning 6 or 7 cm proximal to the pylorus and skeletonizing the distal 1 to 2 cm of esophagus was followed by 15.4% of proven and 10.2 of suspected recurrent ulcers. Insulin tests were done during the first 3 months postoperatively on 31 of the patients, including the 6 with proven and the 4 with suspected recurrent ulcers. The peak acid output to insulin minus tha basal acid output (PAOI-BAO) was less than 5 mEq/hr in 16 cases (52%) and from 5 to 25 mEq/hr in the remaining 15 cases. In 6 patients with proven recurrent ulcer, PAOI-BAO averaged 21.9 mEq/hr (range, 11.3 to 41.8); in the 4 patients with suspected recurrence, 9.5 (range, 4.4 to 11.8). The operative technique was changed in one respect; the distal 5 to 7.5 cm of the esophagus was skeletonized. In 14 patients, the mean PAOI-BAO +/- S.E. within 3 months of PGV was 1985 +/- 0.7 mEq/hr, and 13 of 14 values were less than 5 mEq/hr. One patient developed recurrent ulcer and required re-operation; this patient's value for PAO-BAO was 1.8 mEq/hr. The results show quantitatively that great differences in the completeness of PGV result from differences in the periesophageal dissection and emphasize its importance if optimal results are to be obtained and, especially, if the efficacy of the operation is to be judged.  (+info)

Prognosis of gastric ulcer: twenty-five year followup. (8/1325)

Four hundred twenty-two patients with gastric ulcer treated during 1950-1960 were followed up to 25 years with a mean followup of 9 years. Nonoperative treatment was used in 59% with a hospital mortality of 35%, one-third of these deaths being directly due to gastric ulcer perforation or hemorrhage. Operative treatment was used in 41% of patients. The most common operation (86%) was gastric resection without vagotomy. Overall operative mortality was 16%; 34% for emergency procedures and 6% for elective procedures. Cachexia seemed to be the most important factor related to operative mortality. Nonoperative treatment resulted in more than twice the hospital mortality compared to operative treatment. Approximately one-half of all patients treated non-operatively had a recurrent gastric ulcer at some time during this study. The recurrence rate following definitive gastric resection was 1.3% compared with 16% during nonoperative therapy. Three-fourths of recurrences occurred later than two years and nearly half of recurrences after more than 5 years of followup. Patients with a prior history of overt bleeding from gastric ulcer disease particularly were at risk for further bleeding. There were coincidental duodenal ulcers in 10% of our patients and a 0.8% incidence of gastric cancer during followup. Long term followup demonstrates the superiority of operative treatment of gastric ulcer and also reveals the continuous propensity of such ulcers to recurrence following nonoperative treatment. Earlier elective operation in patients with overt bleeding, recurrence or persisting symptoms should decrease overall mortality and result in a lower overall long-term risk of ulcer complications.  (+info)