(1/531) Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus.
Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were investigated for 1 month in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Post-operative left ventricular end-diastolic dimention and fractional shortening decreased in all cases. Pre-operatively increased plasma ANP concentrations reduced dramatically after the operation. Peri-operative changes in plasma BNP levels had slightly S-shaped curves in all cases. These observations suggest that post-operative responsiveness of ANP and cardiac function are rapid in comparison with cardiac morphological changes, and BNP has a different pathophysiological significance from ANP in dogs with PDA. (+info)
(2/531) Follow-up results of transvenous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with the buttoned device.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this presentation is to document results of buttoned device (BD) occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a large number of patients with particular emphasis on long-term follow-up in an attempt to provide evidence for feasibility, safety and effectiveness of this method of PDA closure. BACKGROUND: Immediate and short-term results of BD occlusion of PDA have been documented in a limited number of children. METHODS: During a six-year period ending August 1996, transcatheter BD closure of PDA was attempted in 284 patients, ages 0.3 to 92 years (median 7) under a protocol approved by the local institutional review boards and FDA with an investigational device exemption in U.S. cases. RESULTS: The PDAs measured 1 to 15 mm (median 4) at the narrowest diameter; 20 were larger than 8 mm and 10 larger than 10 mm. They were occluded with devices measuring from 15 to 35 mm delivered via 7F (N = 140) or 8F (N = 144) sheaths. Successful implantation of the device was accomplished in 278 (98%) of 284 patients. The Qp:Qs decreased from 1.8+/-0.6 (mean+/-SD) to 1.09+/-0.19 (p < 0.001). Effective occlusion defined as no (N = 167 [60%]) or trivial (N = 79 [28%]) residual shunt was achieved in 246 (88%) patients. All types of PDAs, irrespective of the shape (conical, tubular or short), size (small or large) or length (short or long) of the PDA and previously implanted Rashkind devices, could be occluded. Follow-up data, 1 to 60 months (median 24) after device implantation, were available in 234 (84%) patients. Seven (3%) patients required reintervention to treat residual shunt with (N = 2) or without (N = 5) hemolysis. Actuarial reintervention-free rates were 95% at 1 and 5 years. There was gradual reduction of actuarial residual shunts and were 40%, 28%, 21%, 14%, 11%, 10%, 6% and 0% respectively at 1 day, 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after device implantation. Incorporation of folding plug over the button loop in 10 additional patients produced immediate and complete occlusion of PDA. CONCLUSIONS: This large multiinstitutional experience confirms the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of buttoned device closure of PDAs. All types of PDAs irrespective of the shape, length and diameter can be effectively occluded. Incorporation of folding plug over the button loop produces complete PDA occlusion at the time of device implantation. (+info)
(3/531) Cardiac function and morphology studied by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography in unsedated newborn pigs.
The newborn pig is currently the most used species in animal neonatal research. Valid non-invasive monitoring is important in particular for long-term survival of unsedated animals. In the unsedated newborn pig (n = 35, median age 24 h, range 7-48 h) we standardized two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and determined the normal ranges for cardiac function. Probe positioning had to be adjusted to the V-shaped thorax and the mid-line position of the heart. Six out of the sixteen animals < 20 h had a patent ductus arteriosus compared with one of the twenty animals > 20 h old. One atrial septal defect (5 mm) and one small ventricular septal defect were diagnosed. The average heart size was 0.7-0.9% of body weight which is similar to human infants of the same size. The mean aortic diameter was 6.0 +/- 0.5 mm (mean +/- S.D.) and cardiac output was 0.38 +/- 0.08 l min-1; both correlate with body weight (r = 0.80 and 0.73, respectively). Tricuspid regurgitation velocity was 3.0 +/- 0.4 m s-1 (mean +/- S.D.), giving an estimated pressure gradient across the tricuspid valve of 37 +/- 9.7 mmHg. The aortic diameter and the heart weight per kg body weight are comparable to those reported for preterm neonates. The cardiac output and velocities across the four valves are more comparable with term neonates. (+info)
(4/531) Haemodynamic effects of altering arterial oxygen saturation in preterm infants with respiratory failure.
AIMS: To examine the haemodynamic effects of brief alteration in arterial oxygenation in preterm infants with respiratory failure. METHODS: Eighteen preterm infants with respiratory failure, aged 9-76 hours, underwent detailed Doppler echocardiographic assessment at 86%, 96%, and 100% SaO2, achieved by altering the FIO2. Sixteen were receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation, median FIO2 0.45 (0.20-0.65), median mean airway pressure 12 cm H2O (0-20). SaO2 was stable for 15 minutes at each stage. Four parameters of pulmonary arterial pressure were measured: peak velocity of tricuspid regurgitation and peak velocity of left to right ductal flow, TPV:RVET ratio and PEP:RVET ratio, measured at the pulmonary valve, along with flow velocity integrals at the aortic and pulmonary valves, and systemic arterial pressure. Ductal size was graded into closed, small, moderate, large with imaging, pulsed and continuous wave Doppler. RESULTS: Between 86% and 96% SaO2, there were no consistent changes, but in three of the 12 with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) there was ductal constriction, with complete closure in one. Between 96% and 100% SaO2, peak ductal flow velocity rose significantly in four of eight with a PDA. Ductal constriction occurred in four infants; in three this was associated with a significant fall in aortic flow integral and a rise in aortic pressure (4-6 mm Hg). Overall, 11 infants went from 86% to 100% SaO2 and pulmonary arterial pressure fell significantly in seven. CONCLUSION: A brief rise in SaO2 within the range maintained by most neonatal units can cause significant ductal constriction. The fall in pulmonary arterial pressure with 100% SaO2 seen in most infants was associated with a fall in pulmonary blood flow (or no change), rather than a rise, indicating that the dominant haemodynamic effect was ductal constriction rather than pulmonary vasodilation. (+info)
(5/531) Prostacyclin concentrations and transitional circulation in preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation.
AIM: To describe the association between early postnatal prostacyclin concentrations in preterm infants; echocardiographic measurements of ductal diameter and ventricular output and clinical outcomes of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). METHODS: Forty nine preterm infants born before 30 weeks of gestational age (median birthweight 980 g, median gestational age 27 weeks) underwent echocardiographic studies at 5, 12, 24 and 48 hours of postnatal age. Measurements included ventricular outputs and the ductal shunt diameter as a measure of the shunt size. Simultaneous measurements of blood pressures, mean airway pressure and inspired fraction of oxygen (FIO2) were recorded. A blood sample for the prostacyclin metabolite 6-ketoprostaglandin F1-alpha (6KPGF1 alpha) was taken at the 5 and 24 hour echocardiogram. RESULTS: The mean 6KPGF1 alpha concentrations were higher than adult concentrations at 5 (515 pg/ml) and 24 (255 pg/ml) hours. There was no association with gestational age. Raised 6KPGF1 alpha concentrations were related to increased need for mechanical ventilation and severity of respiratory disease. At 5 hours, increased 6KPGF1 alpha concentrations were associated with larger PDA and at 24 hours with larger PDA and higher left ventricular output. Infants with higher 6KPGF1 alpha concentrations were more likely to develop clinically significant PDA. There was no association between early measurements of 6KPGF1 alpha and IVH. CONCLUSIONS: Early postnatal prostacyclin concentrations are markedly raised in preterm infants, particularly in those with more severe lung disease. Raised 6KPGF1 alpha concentrations were associated with an increased ductal diameter and subsequent PDA, but not IVH. (+info)
(6/531) The snare-assisted technique for transcatheter coil occlusion of moderate to large patent ductus arteriosus: immediate and intermediate results.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of using a snare-assisted technique to coil occlude the moderate to large size patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). BACKGROUND: Transcatheter occlusion of small PDAs using Gianturco coils is safe and effective. However, in larger size PDAs and/or those with short PDA length, the procedure still carries risks of coil embolization, incomplete occlusion and failure to implant the coil. METHODS: From January 1994 to June 1997, the records of 104 consecutive snare-assisted coil occlusions of moderate to large PDAs (minimum diameter >2.0 mm) were reviewed. Immediate and intermediate outcomes including complete and partial occlusion, failure to implant and complications were analyzed with respect to ductal type and size. RESULTS: Patient age ranged from 0.1 to 70.1 years (median 3.3 years). Minimum PDA diameter ranged from 2.1 to 6.8 mm (mean 3.0 +/- 0.9 mm). Angiographic types were A-62, B-13, C-6, D-14 and E-9. Using the snare-assisted technique, coil placement was successful in 104/104 patients (100%), irrespective of size or angiographic type. Immediate complete closure was observed in 73/104 (70.2%) and was related to smaller PDA size, but not to angiographic type. Complete closure was documented in 102/104 (98.1%) at 2- to 16-month follow-up. Successful closure was unrelated to PDA size or type. Coil embolization to the pulmonary artery occurred in 3/104 (2.9%) patients and was not related to PDA size or type. The need for multiple coils was found in 28/104 patients (26.9%), and was related to larger PDA size, but not to angiographic type. CONCLUSIONS: The snare-assisted delivery technique allows successful occlusion of moderate to large PDAs up to 6.8 mm, irrespective of angiographic type. This technique permits improved control and accuracy of coil placement, and facilitates delivery of multiple coils. (+info)
(7/531) Lung perfusion studies after detachable coil occlusion of persistent arterial duct.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relative lung perfusion following complete occlusion of persistent arterial duct with detachable Cook coils. METHODS: Ductal occlusion using detachable coils was performed in 35 patients (median age 3.9 years, range 0.5 to 16; 32 native ducts, three patients with previous devices). If the duct could be crossed with a 0.035 inch guidewire and a 4 F catheter after coil implantation, a further coil was implanted. Between one and seven coils were used (median two). RESULTS: Complete ductal occlusion was confirmed by echocardiography 24 hours after the procedure in all patients. Lung perfusion scans were performed three months after the procedure in 33 of 35 patients (two older patients with a single coil each did not attend). Decreased perfusion to the left lung (defined as < 40% of total lung flow) was observed in only one patient, who had previously had a 17 mm Rashkind umbrella implanted. There was no correlation between left lung perfusion and peak left pulmonary artery Doppler velocities (r = 0.27 and p = 0.125 for the entire group; r = 0.29 and p = 0.124 after excluding patients with previous devices). CONCLUSIONS: Coil occlusion is effective in achieving complete closure of the duct. An aggressive approach using multiple coils did not compromise perfusion to the left lung. (+info)
(8/531) Critical pathways for postoperative care after simple congenital heart surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, financial, and parent/patient satisfaction impact of critical pathways on the postoperative care of pediatric cardiothoracic patients with simple congenital heart lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Critical pathways were developed by pediatric intensive care nurses and implemented under the direction of pediatric cardiothoracic surgeons. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Critical pathways were used during a 12-month study on 46 postoperative patients with simple repair of atrial septal defect (ASD), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Using the study criteria, a control group of 58 patients was chosen from 1993. Prospective and control group data collected included postoperative intubation time, total laboratory tests, arterial blood gas utilization, morphine utilization, time in the pediatric intensive care unit, total hospital stay, total hospital charges, total hospital cost, and complications. Variances from the critical pathway and satisfaction data were also recorded for study patients. RESULTS: Resource utilization was reduced after implementation of critical pathways. Significant reductions were seen in total hours in the pediatric intensive care unit, total number of laboratory tests, postoperative intubation times, arterial blood gas utilization, morphine utilization, length of hospitalization (ASD, 4.9 to 3.1 days; CoA, 5.2 to 3.2 days; and PDA, 4.1 to 1.4 days; all P < 0.05), total hospital charges (ASD, $16,633 to $13,627; CoA, $14,292 to $8319; and PDA, $8249 to $4216; all P < 0.05), and total hospital costs. There was no increase in respiratory complications or other complications. Patients and families were generally satisfied with their hospital experience, including analgesia and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of critical pathways reduced resource utilization and costs after repair of three simple congenital heart lesions, without obvious complications or patient dissatisfaction. (+info)