(1/527) All-trans-retinoic acid inhibits Jun N-terminal kinase by increasing dual-specificity phosphatase activity.
Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are serine-threonine kinases that play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. We previously observed that JNK activity is suppressed by all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA), a ligand for retinoic acid nuclear receptors (RARs), in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, which are growth inhibited by t-RA. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which t-RA inhibits JNK and the possibility that this signaling event is blocked in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Virtually all NSCLC cell lines are resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of t-RA, and a subset of them have a transcriptional defect specific to retinoid nuclear receptors. We found that in NSCLC cells expressing functional retinoid receptors, serum-induced JNK phosphorylation and activity were inhibited by t-RA in a bimodal pattern, transiently within 30 min and in a sustained fashion beginning at 12 h. Retinoid receptor transcriptional activation was required for the late, but not the early, suppression of JNK activity. t-RA inhibited serum-induced JNK activity by blocking mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 4-induced signaling events. This effect of t-RA was phosphatase dependent and involved an increase in the expression of the dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). t-RA did not activate MKP-1 expression or inhibit JNK activity in a NSCLC cell line with retinoid receptors that are refractory to ligand-induced transcriptional activation. These findings provide the first evidence that t-RA suppresses JNK activity by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Retinoid receptor transcriptional activation was necessary for the sustained inhibition of JNK activity by t-RA, and this signaling event was disrupted in NSCLC cells with retinoid receptors that are refractory to ligand-induced transcriptional activation. (+info)
(2/527) Transcriptional activation of the glucose transporter GLUT1 in ventricular cardiac myocytes by hypertrophic agonists.
Myocardial hypertrophy is associated with increased basal glucose metabolism. Basal glucose transport into cardiac myocytes is mediated by the GLUT1 isoform of glucose transporters, whereas the GLUT4 isoform is responsible for regulatable glucose transport. Treatment of neonatal cardiac myocytes with the hypertrophic agonist 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phenylephrine increased expression of Glut1 mRNA relative to Glut4 mRNA. To study the transcriptional regulation of GLUT1 expression, myocytes were transfected with luciferase reporter constructs under the control of the Glut1 promoter. Stimulation of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phenylephrine induced transcription from the Glut1 promoter, which was inhibited by cotransfection with the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases CL100 and MKP-3. Cotransfection of the myocytes with constitutively active versions of Ras and MEK1 or an estrogen-inducible version of Raf1 also stimulated transcription from the Glut1 promoter. Hypertrophic induction of the Glut1 promoter was also partially sensitive to inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and was strongly inhibited by cotransfection with dominant-negative Ras. Thus, Ras activation and pathways downstream of Ras mediate induction of the Glut1 promoter during myocardial hypertrophy. (+info)
(3/527) Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression is induced by low oxygen conditions found in solid tumor microenvironments. A candidate MKP for the inactivation of hypoxia-inducible stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity.
Pathophysiological hypoxia is an important modulator of gene expression in solid tumors and other pathologic conditions. We observed that transcriptional activation of the c-jun proto-oncogene in hypoxic tumor cells correlates with phosphorylation of the ATF2 transcription factor. This finding suggested that hypoxic signals transmitted to c-jun involve protein kinases that target AP-1 complexes (c-Jun and ATF2) that bind to its promoter region. Stress-inducible protein kinases capable of activating c-jun expression include stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily of signaling molecules. To investigate the potential role of MAPKs in the regulation of c-jun by tumor hypoxia, we focused on the activation SAPK/JNKs in SiHa human squamous carcinoma cells. Here, we describe the transient activation of SAPK/JNKs by tumor-like hypoxia, and the concurrent transcriptional activation of MKP-1, a stress-inducible member of the MAPK phosphatase (MKP) family of dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. MKP-1 antagonizes SAPK/JNK activation in response to diverse environmental stresses. Together, these findings identify MKP-1 as a hypoxia-responsive gene and suggest a critical role in the regulation of SAPK/JNK activity in the tumor microenvironment. (+info)
(4/527) Activation and expression of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP-kinases in isolated islets of Langerhans: implications for cultured islet survival.
Isolation and purification of islet cells exposes them to ischemic, osmotic and mechanical stresses. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of the MAP-kinases in islets immediately following isolation. During the first 48 h, activity of JNK1 and JNK2 declined markedly. Activity of p38 increased steadily with time in culture while extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activity declined dramatically within 24 h post-isolation. High p38 activation relative to ERK activation immediately following isolation correlated with a decrease in islet survival after 36 h in culture. Absence and/or transiency of ERK signaling in conjunction with sustained activation of p38 pathway could be an important regulator of cell death in islets during and following their isolation by commonly employed procedures. (+info)
(5/527) LDL stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression, independent of LDL receptors, in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerosis, stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation and proliferation, but the signal transduction pathways between LDL stimulation and cell proliferation are poorly understood. Because mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a crucial role in mediating cell growth, we studied the effect of LDL on the induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in human SMCs and found that LDL stimulated induction of MKP-1 mRNA and proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Heparin, inhibiting LDL-receptor binding, did not influence LDL-stimulated MKP-1 mRNA expression, and human LDL also induced MKP-1 expression in rat SMCs and fibroblasts derived from LDL receptor-deficient mice, indicating an LDL receptor-independent process. Pretreatment of SMCs with pertussis toxin markedly inhibited LDL-induced MKP-1 expression. Depletion of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate or inhibition of PKC by calphostin C blocked MKP-1 induction, but the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 had no effect. Pretreatment of SMCs with genistein or herbimycin A abrogated LDL-stimulated MKP-1 induction. The MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 abolished LDL-stimulated activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) but not MKP-1 induction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of MKP-1 in vivo reduced LDL-induced expression of Elk-1-dependent reporter genes, and SMC lines overexpressing recombinant MKP-1 exhibited decreased ERK activities and retarded proliferation in response to LDL. Our findings demonstrate that LDL induces MKP-1 expression in SMCs via activation of PKC and tyrosine kinases, independent of LDL receptors and ERK-MAPKs, and that MKP-1 plays an important role in the regulation of LDL-initiated signal transductions leading to SMC proliferation. (+info)
(6/527) Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway.
M-CSF triggers the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK)-1/2. We show that inhibition of this pathway leads to the arrest of bone marrow macrophages at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle without inducing apoptosis. M-CSF induces the transient expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which correlates with the inactivation of ERK-1/2. Because the time course of ERK activation must be finely controlled to induce cell proliferation, we studied the mechanisms involved in the induction of MKP-1 by M-CSF. Activation of ERK-1/2 is not required for this event. Therefore, M-CSF activates ERK-1/2 and induces MKP-1 expression through different pathways. The use of two protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (GF109203X and calphostin C) revealed that M-CSF induces MKP-1 expression through a PKC-dependent pathway. We analyzed the expression of different PKC isoforms in bone marrow macrophages, and we only detected PKCbetaI, PKCepsilon, and PKCzeta. PKCzeta is not inhibited by GF109203X/calphostin C. Of the other two isoforms, PKCepsilon is the best candidate to mediate MKP-1 induction. Prolonged exposure to PMA slightly inhibits MKP-1 expression in response to M-CSF. In bone marrow macrophages, this treatment leads to a complete depletion of PKCbetaI, but only a partial down-regulation of PKCepsilon. Moreover, no translocation of PKCbetaI or PKCzeta from the cytosol to particulate fractions was detected in response to M-CSF, whereas PKCepsilon was constitutively present at the membrane and underwent significant activation in M-CSF-stimulated macrophages. In conclusion, we remark the role of PKC, probably isoform epsilon, in the negative control of ERK-1/2 through the induction of their specific phosphatase. (+info)
(7/527) Osmotic regulation of the heat shock response in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells.
The influence of cell hydration on the heat shock response was investigated in H4IIE hepatoma cells at the levels of HSP70 expression, MAP kinase activation, induction of c-jun and the MAP kinase phosphatase MKP-1, heat resistance, and development of tolerance/sensitization to arsenite after a priming heat treatment. Induction of HSP70, MKP-1, and c-jun by heat was delayed, but more pronounced or sustained, under hyperosmotic conditions compared with normo- and hypo-osmotically exposed cells. Anisosmolarity per se was ineffective to induce HSP70; some expression of the mRNAs for MKP-1 and c-jun in response to hyperosmolarity was found, but was small compared with the response to heat. Heat-induced activation of JNK-1 was increased under hyperosmotic conditions and more sustained than the JNK-activity induced by hyperosmolarity at 37 degrees C. A prominent Erk-2 activation was found immediately after heat shock under hypo- and normo-osmotic conditions, but Erk-2 activation was weak in hyperosmolarity-exposed cells. Despite anisosmotic alterations of the heat shock response at the molecular level, the heat resistance of H4IIE cells toward heat shock was not affected by ambient osmolarity. However, an osmolarity-dependent sensitization to arsenite was induced by a priming heat shock. The osmodependence of the H4IIE cell response to heat differs from that recently found in primary rat hepatocytes. The data are discussed in terms of cellular adaption mechanisms and their physiological relevance. (+info)
(8/527) Cyclic strain stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated by Ras/Rac-MAPK pathways.
Recently, we demonstrated that mechanical stress results in rapid phosphorylation or activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) followed by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AP-1 transcription factors (Hu, Y., Bock, G., Wick, G., and Xu, Q. (1998) FASEB J. 12, 1135-1142). Herein, we provide evidence that VSMC responses to mechanical stress also include induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which may serve as a negative regulator of MAPK signaling pathways. When rat VSMCs cultivated on a flexible membrane were subjected to cyclic strain stress (60 cycles/min, 5-30% elongation), induction of MKP-1 proteins and mRNA was observed in time- and strength-dependent manners. Concomitantly, mechanical forces evoked rapid and transient activation of all three members of MAPKs, i.e. extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinases (JNKs), or stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), and p38 MAPKs. Suramin, a growth factor receptor antagonist, completely abolished ERK activation, significantly blocked MKP-1 expression, but not JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK activation, in response to mechanical stress. Interestingly, VSMC lines stably expressing dominant negative Ras (Ras N17) or Rac (Rac N17) exhibited a marked decrease in MKP-1 expression; the inhibition of ERK kinases (MEK1/2) by PD 98059 or of p38 MAPKs by SB 202190 resulted in a down-regulation of MKP-1 induction. Furthermore, overexpressing MKP-1 in VSMCs led to the dephosphorylation and inactivation of ERKs, JNKs/SAPKs, and p38 MAPKs and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that mechanical stress induces MKP-1 expression regulated by two signal pathways, including growth factor receptor-Ras-ERK and Rac-JNK/SAPK or p38 MAPK, and that MKP-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation via MAPK inactivation. These results suggest that MKP-1 plays a crucial role in mechanical stress-stimulated signaling leading to VSMC growth and differentiation. (+info)