Update on dry socket: a review of the literature.
Dry socket is a postoperative complication that occurs after a dental extraction and has been defined as an inflammation of the alveolus. If this inflammation should surpass the alveolar walls, it would result in a located osteitis. The frequency of appearance of dry socket has been reported in a very wide margin, from 1% until 70%. It is generally accepted that most dry sockets appear after extraction of third retained molars, in which the occurrence of this complication is about 20-30% of dental extractions, ten times more than in the rest of dental extractions. In this work we review the forms of clinical appearance, the risk factors related to this affection and the etiopathogenic theories that try to explain its appearance. The treatment management is also examined. Fibrinolitic agents, laundries, antiseptic, and antibiotics have been studied for its prevention, according to the pathogenic theories of dry socket. We analyze and criticize the different drugs and their results. In conclusion from the revised data, we think it is possible to defend a pathogenic model in which the bacterial fibrinolytic mechanisms and the microorganism of the own patient may contribute to produce the dry socket. (+info)
Influence of smoking upon the postoperative course of lower third molar surgery.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether smoking influences the postoperative course (pain and trismus) of lower third molar surgery, with a clinical evaluation of surgical wound condition and analysis of the possible differences between smokers and nonsmokers. DESIGN: The study subjects were randomly distributed into two groups (smokers and nonsmokers) and subjected to lower third molar extraction in the Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Madrid Complutense University, Spain). The study variables were trismus after 7 days, the intensity of pain and the need for rescue medication during a period of one week. The surgical wound was also assessed (color, presence of plaque, etc). RESULTS: Two cases of postoperative infection were documented among the smokers, and postoperative trismus was found to be greater among the latter (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of pain, though trismus was greater among the smokers. Smoking did not influence wound condition (color, marginal inflammation, appositioning of the margins, ulceration, etc). (+info)
Intra-alveolar chlorhexidine gel for the prevention of dry socket in mandibular third molar surgery. A pilot study.
PURPOSE: Chlorhexidine is a good prophylactic agent for post-extraction dry socket alveolitis. The bio-adhesive 0.2% chlorhexidine gel could improve this action since its intra-alveolar positioning would allow a more direct action on the alveolus and more prolonged action of the medication. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We present a single blind, randomised study on 30 patients to evaluate the efficacy of the bio-adhesive 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, placed only once within the alveolus, on the reduction of the incidence of impacted third molar post-extraction dry socket alveolitis and its post-operative effects on patients. RESULTS: A reduction of 42.65% in the occurrence of alveolitis and a more favourable post-operative period in the experimental group was observed. In the control group, the appearance of alveolitis was 30.76% opposite to 17.64 % in the experimental group. CONCLUSIONS: The bio-adhesive 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, applied only once after the extraction of impacted third molars, seems to be an appropriate option for the reduction of alveolitis. It improves the buccal aperture and oedema in the post-operative period, although further double blind studies with larger samples are necessary. (+info)
Extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: postoperative complications and their risk factors.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of various complications, including alveolitis, infection and paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve, in association with removal of impacted mandibular third molars. The relation between these 3 complications and several clinical variables (age, sex, degree of impaction, surgical difficulty and use of oral contraceptives) was also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for all patients who underwent extraction of an impacted third molar in a single private dental practice over a 12-month period. A variety of data were collected for each patient, including age, sex, medical status at the time of the procedure and type of procedure performed. Patients were contacted at 2 days and 4 weeks after surgery to establish the occurrence of complications, and those with complications were treated; those with paresthesia were followed for at least 24 months. RESULTS: A total of 550 impacted mandibular third molars were extracted from 327 patients (136 males and 191 females). The complication rate was 6.9%, consisting of 20 cases of alveolitis, 12 cases of infection and 6 cases of paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve. Of the 6 neurosensory deficits, 3 resolved and 3 were permanent. The risk factors associated with permanent neurosensory deficit were female sex, Pell and Gregory IC or IIC classification of impaction, and age greater than 24 years. The risk of postoperative alveolitis and infection was also greater among women. There was no significant relation between the use of oral contraceptives and alveolitis. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars should be carried out well before the age of 24 years, especially for female patients. Older patients are at greater risk of postoperative complications and permanent sequelae. A surgeon's lack of experience could also be a major factor in the development of postoperative complications. (+info)
Influence of local tetracycline on the microbiota of alveolar osteitis in rats.
Chlorhexidine in the prevention of dry socket: effectiveness of different dosage forms and regimens.
Dry socket (DS) is a potential postoperative complication of dental extractions. It is clinically diagnosed by the presence of a denuded socket secondary to premature loss of the blood clot, and manifests as slight discomfort for the patient, followed by sudden worsening with intense or lancing pain. Since the underlying etiology is not clear, the best treatment is prevention. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is an antiseptic that acts upon the bacteria of the oral cavity, and is widely used in dental practice. OBJECTIVES: A metaanalysis is made of the different CHX treatment regimens used for the prevention of DS, with the proposal of a management protocol designed to maximize the efficacy of such treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature searches were made in the PubMed Medline, Cochrane and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, crossing the terms: alveolar osteitis, dry socket and chlorhexidine. The search was limited to randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials. RESULTS: Twelve clinical trials using CHX in rinse or gel form at doses of 0.12% or 0.2% with different administration regimens for the prevention of DS were identified. CONCLUSION: After reviewing the existing medical literature, it can be concluded that 0.2% CHX gel, applied every 12 hours for 7 days after extraction is the best available option for the prevention of DS. However, this is also the most expensive option, and since CHX is not subsidized by the Spanish public healthcare system, it occasionally may be more advisable to use the 0.12% rinse with the same dosing regimen. (+info)
Alveolar osteitis following surgical removal of mandibular third molars.(7/14)