The fate of folate polyglutamates in meat during storage and processing. (33/4528)

The rate of hydrolysis of chicken liver folate polyglutamates, by endogenous liver conjugases, under various conditions of storage, heat, and tissue disruption, were investigated. The procedure used was to allow a radioactive tracer dose of the vitamin to equilibrate into the folate polyglutamyl pool. After various storage periods and treatments the polyglutamyl state of the folate present was examined by analytical techniques based on oxidative degradation of native folate polyglutamates to the corresponding p-aminobenzoylpolyglutamate followed by chromatographic separation on DEAE cellulose anion exchange resin. Identification of folate polyglutamates present was made by simultaneous elution of known p-aminobenzoylpolyglutamate markers. In an intact tissue sample only slight degradation was found after 48 hr at 4 C; complete degradation of folate polyglutamates taking 120 hr. Samples of homogenized tissue show complete degradation to folate monoglutamates and a small amount of diglutamate after 48 hr storage. Superimposed on the above is the consideration that if at any time prior to or during storage the liver is heated to greater than 100 C irreversible inactivation of the endogenous conjugases takes place and the folate polyglutamate pattern is stabilized. It was also demonstrated that during two different heating procedures no extra deconjugation occurred.  (+info)

A quantitative method for evaluating the stabilities of nucleic acids. (34/4528)

We report a general method for screening, in solution, the impact of deviations from canonical Watson-Crick composition on the thermodynamic stability of nucleic acid duplexes. We demonstrate how fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used to detect directly free energy differences between an initially formed "reference" duplex (usually a Watson-Crick duplex) and a related "test" duplex containing a lesion/alteration of interest (e.g., a mismatch, a modified, a deleted, or a bulged base, etc.). In one application, one titrates into a solution containing a fluorescently labeled, FRET-active, reference duplex, an unlabeled, single-stranded nucleic acid (test strand), which may or may not compete successfully to form a new duplex. When a new duplex forms by strand displacement, it will not exhibit FRET. The resultant titration curve (normalized fluorescence intensity vs. logarithm of test strand concentration) yields a value for the difference in stability (free energy) between the newly formed, test strand-containing duplex and the initial reference duplex. The use of competitive equilibria in this assay allows the measurement of equilibrium association constants that far exceed the magnitudes accessible by conventional titrimetric techniques. Additionally, because of the sensitivity of fluorescence, the method requires several orders of magnitude less material than most other solution methods. We discuss the advantages of this method for detecting and characterizing any modification that alters duplex stability, including, but not limited to, mutagenic lesions. We underscore the wide range of accessible free energy values that can be defined by this method, the applicability of the method in probing for a myriad of nucleic acid variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, and the potential of the method for high throughput screening.  (+info)

RIT 2214, a new biosynthetic penicillin produced by a mutant of Cephalosporium acremonium. (35/4528)

A number of lysine-requiring auxotrophs of Cephalosporium acremonium were investigated for incorporation of side-chain precursors and for accumulation of beta-lactam compounds. One of the auxotrophs, Acremonium chrysogenum ATCC 20389, producing cephalosporin C and penicillin N only if grown in media supplemented with DL-alpha-amino-adipic acid (DL-alpha-AAA), was found to use L-S-carboxymethylcysteine (L-CMC) as a side-chain precursor for the synthesis of a new penicillin (RIT 2214). No corresponding cephalosporin was detected. The penicillin present in the culture filtrate, was concentrated by adsorption on activated carbon and successive column chromatography on Amberlite IRA-68 and Amberlite XAD-4. Final purification was achieved by cellulose column chromatography. RIT 2214 was identified as 6-(D)-[(2-amino-2-carboxy)-ethylthio]-acetamido]-penicillanic acid by spectral analysis, bioactivity spectrum, elucidation of side-chain structure and finally by semisynthesis. Its biological properties were also evaluated.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of phosphoglycerate mutase from methanol-grown Hyphomicrobium X and Pseudomonas AM1. (36/4528)

Phosphoglycerate mutase has been purified from methanol-grown Hyphomicrobium X and Pseudomonas AMI by acid precipitation, heat treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The purification attained using the Hyphomicrobium X extract was 72-fold, and using the Pseudomonas AMI extract, 140-fold. The enzyme purity, as shown by analytical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 50% from Hyphomicrobium X and 40% from Pseudomonas AMI. The enzyme activity was associated with one band. The purified preparations did not contain detectable amounts of phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase or glycerate kinase activity. The molecular weight of the enzymic preparation was 32000 +/- 3000. The enzyme from both organisms was stable at low temperatures and, in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, could withstand exposure to high temperatures. The enzyme from Pseudomonas AMI has a broad pH optimum at 7-0 to 7-6 whilst the enzyme from Hyphomicrobium X has an optimal activity at pH 7-3. The cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid was required for maximum enzyme activity and high concentrations of 2-phosphoglyceric acid were inhibitory. The Km values for the Hyphomicrobium X enzyme were: 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 6-0 X 10(-3) M: 2-phosphoglyceric acid, 6-9 X 10(-4) M; 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, 8-0 X 10(-6) M; and for the Pseudomonas AMI ENzyme: 3-4 X 10(-3) M, 3-7 X 10(-4) M and 10 X 10(-6) M respectively. The equilibrium constant for the reaction was 11-3 +/- 2-5 in the direction of 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphoglyceric acid and 0-09 +/- 0-02 in the reverse direction. The standard free energy for the reaction proceeding from 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphoglyceric acid was -5-84 kJ mol(-1) and in the reverse direction +5-81 kJ mol(-1).  (+info)

Quantification of riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection. (37/4528)

BACKGROUND: Riboflavin is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, which serve as cofactors for several redox enzymes. We have developed a capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of riboflavin and its two coenzyme forms in human plasma. METHODS: Trichloroacetic acid-treated plasma was subjected to solid-phase extraction on reversed-phase columns. The analytes were separated by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in uncoated fused- silica capillaries filled with borate buffer containing 50 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate, methanol, and N-methylformamide. Native fluorescence was monitored at 530 nm, using an argon laser operating at 488 nm as excitation source. RESULTS: The assay was linear over a concentration range of two orders of magnitude, and the limit of detection was far below physiological concentrations for all vitamers. The within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were 4-9% and 6-12%, respectively. The reference values (median, 5-95 percentiles) obtained by analyzing plasma from 63 healthy subjects were 8.6 nmol/L (2.7-42.5 nmol/L) for riboflavin, 7.0 nmol/L (3.5-13.3 nmol/L) for FMN, and 57.9 nmol/L (44.5-78.1 nmol/L) for FAD. CONCLUSIONS: Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection allows determination of all riboflavin vitamers far below physiological concentrations. The method may become a useful tool for the assessment of riboflavin status in humans.  (+info)

Polymer-in-a-box mechanism for the thermal stabilization of collagen molecules in fibers. (38/4528)

Collagen molecules in solution unfold close to the maximum body temperature of the species of animal from which the molecules are extracted. It is therefore vital that collagen is stabilized during fiber formation. In this paper, our concept that the collagen molecule is thermally stabilized by loss of configurational entropy of the molecule in the fiber lattice, is refined by examining the process theoretically. Combining an equation for the entropy of a polymer-in-a-box with our previously published rate theory analysis of collagen denaturation, we have derived a hyperbolic relationship between the denaturation temperature, Tm, and the volume fraction, epsilon, of water in the fiber. DSC data were consistent with the model for water volume fractions greater than 0.2. At a water volume fraction of about 0.2, there was an abrupt change in the slope of the linear relationship between 1/Tm and epsilon. This may have been caused by a collapse of the gap-overlap fiber structure at low hydrations. At more than 6 moles water per tripeptide, the enthalpy of denaturation on a dry tendon basis was independent of hydration at 58.55 +/- 0.59 J g-1. Between about 6 and 1 moles water per tripeptide, dehydration caused a substantial loss of enthalpy of denaturation, caused by a loss of water bridges from the hydration network surrounding the triple helix. At very low hydrations (less than 1 mole of water per tripeptide), where there was not enough water to form bridges and only sufficient to hydrogen bond to primary binding sites on the peptide chains, the enthalpy was approximately constant at 11.6 +/- 0.69 J g-1. This was assigned mainly to the breaking of the direct hydrogen bonds between the alpha chains.  (+info)

Measurement of cadmium-induced metallothionein in urine by ELISA and prevention of overestimation due to polymerization. (39/4528)

Urinary metallothionein (MT) is a biological marker of cadmium (Cd) exposure and Cd-induced renal dysfunction. The MT is prone to oxidation due to high cysteine content and forms polymers, which can result in overestimation of the protein by immunochemical methods. The objectives of the present study were to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of MT in urine and to find ways by which the protein could either be preserved in its monomeric form or converted to this form before analysis to avoid overestimation. Urine specimens analyzed were either from rats repeatedly injected with Cd or from individuals chronically exposed to cadmium through their diets. The MT in rat urine remained in the monomeric form if the urine was collected at 4 degrees C but did not if it was collected at room temperature. The MT was also polymerized if the urine was subjected to repeated freezing and thawing. Overestimation of MT in rat urine occurred (as much as 12-fold) if the MT was polymerized. Addition of 5mM mercaptoethanol to freshly collected rat urine retarded MT polymerization, and addition of 50mM mercaptoethanol converted the polymerized MT to its monomeric form. Analysis of MT in frozen human urine samples revealed that if the urines were not treated with mercaptoethanol, the estimates of MT concentration were up to 11-fold higher than in the treated samples. We conclude that the polymerization of MT in rat and human urines is a serious problem and results in overestimation of the protein by ELISA and that this problem could be overcome by the addition of mercaptoethanol to the urine samples prior to analysis.  (+info)

Etodolac in equine urine and serum: determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, confirmation, and metabolite identification by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. (40/4528)

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used for the detection of etodolac in equine serum and urine. The method consisted of a one-step liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a reversed-phase (RP-18) column and detection using an ultraviolet detector. Additional confirmation methods included a HPLC coupled with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer (APCI-MS). Free (unbound) etodolac and its conjugates were present in the samples. Concentrations of the drug in the serum and urine samples collected from four standardbred mares after a single oral administration of Ultradol were determined. Maximum etodolac concentrations of 712, 716, 568, and 767 microg/mL in urine and 4.1, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.2 microg/mL in serum were observed. The peak concentrations of the drug were detected 2-10 h (urine) and 40 min-6 h (serum) after administration to four horses. The maximum detection time was 79 h in urine and 48 h in serum after the drug administration. The drug-elimination profiles for both urine and serum are presented and discussed. Method ruggedness and precision and stability studies of etodolac in serum and urine are presented. Three major metabolites were detected in the urine by liquid chromatography-APCI-MS. All three metabolites were identified as monohydroxylated etodolac.  (+info)