Amitriptyline and procainamide inhibition of cocaine and cocaethylene degradation in human serum in vitro. (17/4528)

Amitriptyline (AMI) and procainamide (PA) have been reported to inhibit the activity of human plasma butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme important in the metabolic degradation of cocaine (COC) and its ethyl analogue cocaethylene (CE). Because both AMI and PA may be used in the treatment of COC intoxication and abuse, the effect of high pharmacological concentrations of these compounds on the degradation of COC and CE in pooled human serum was studied. AMI (1.8 micromol/L) modestly inhibited the degradation of COC by 4.2% and of CE by 4.0%. PA (42.5 micromol/L) profoundly inhibited degradation of COC by 42.7% and of CE by 47.2%. In contrast, lithium carbonate (1 mmol/L, control) showed no inhibition of degradation of either COC or CE. These results suggest that AMI and PA may prolong the half-life of COC and CE in human serum.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of transcription activation by HLF and HIF1alpha in response to hypoxia: their stabilization and redox signal-induced interaction with CBP/p300. (18/4528)

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha) and its related factor, HLF, activate expression of a group of genes such as erythropoietin in response to low oxygen. Transfection analysis using fusion genes of GAL4DBD with various fragments of the two factors delineated two transcription activation domains which are inducible in response to hypoxia and are localized in the C-terminal half. Their sequences are conserved between HLF and HIF1alpha. One is designated NAD (N-terminal activation domain), while the other is CAD (C-terminal activation domain). Immunoblot analysis revealed that NADs, which were rarely detectable at normoxia, became stabilized and accumulated at hypoxia, whereas CADs were constitutively expressed. In the mammalian two-hybrid system, CAD and NAD baits enhanced the luciferase expression from a reporter gene by co-transfection with CREB-binding protein (CBP) prey, whereas CAD, but not NAD, enhanced beta-galactosidase expression in yeast by CBP co-expression, suggesting that NAD and CAD interact with CBP/p300 by a different mechanism. Co-transfection experiments revealed that expression of Ref-1 and thioredoxin further enhanced the luciferase activity expressed by CAD, but not by NAD. Amino acid replacement in the sequences of CADs revealed a specific cysteine to be essential for their hypoxia-inducible interaction with CBP. Nuclear translocation of thioredoxin from cytoplasm was observed upon reducing O2 concentrations.  (+info)

A novel strategy affords high-yield coupling of antibody to extremities of liposomal surface-grafted PEG chains. (19/4528)

Several methodologies for the preparation of polyethylene glycol-grafted immunoliposomes have been developed by attaching antibodies to the terminus of the polymer. Unilamellar liposomes were prepared containing a combination of a functionalized polyethylene glycol(3400) and an inert polyethylene glycol(2000) phosphatidylethanolamine derivate up to 5 mol%. The greater length of the functionalized polyethylene glycol derivate did not alter the liposomal sterical stability or the remote loading of doxorubicin. Anti-CD34 immunoliposomes were prepared by the reaction of maleimide-derivatized My10 antibody with generated thiol groups at the periphery of the liposomes and efficiencies of nearly 100% were obtained. The greater accessibility of the reactive group makes this strategy more efficient than others described. The immunoliposomes prepared bound specifically to CD34+ cells.  (+info)

DNA triple helix stabilisation by a naphthylquinoline dimer. (20/4528)

We have used DNase I footprinting to examine the effect of a novel naphthylquinoline dimer, designed as a triplex-specific bis-intercalator, on the stability of intermolecular DNA triplexes. We find that this compound efficiently promotes triplex formation between the 9-mer oligonucleotide 5'-TTTTTTCTT and its oligopurine duplex target at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM, enhancing the triplex stability by at least 1000-fold. This compound, which is the first reported example of a triplex bis-intercalator, is about 30 times more potent than the simple monofunctional ligand.  (+info)

Spin trapping of nitric oxide by ferro-chelates: kinetic and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. (21/4528)

Biologically generated nitric oxide appears to play a pivotal role in the control of a diverse series of physiologic functions. Iron-chelates and low-frequency EPR spectroscopy have been used to verify in vivo production of nitric oxide. The interpretation of in vivo identification of nitric oxide localized at the site of evolution in real time is complicated by the varied kinetics of secretion. The quantitative efficiency of the spectroscopic measurement, so important in understanding the physiology of nitric oxide, remains elusive. The development of a more stable iron-chelate will help better define nitric oxide physiology. In this report, we present data comparing the commonly used ferro-di(N-methyl-D-glucamine-dithiocarbamate) (Fe2+(MGD)2) and the novel chelate ferro-di(N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine) (Fe2+(DTCS)2) quantifying the in vitro and in vivo stability of the corresponding spin trapped adducts, NO-Fe(MGD)2 and NO-Fe(DTCS)2. Finally, very low frequency EPR spectroscopy has been used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of NO-Fe(MGD)2 and NO-Fe(DTCS)2 in mice in real time.  (+info)

Structural properties of DNA:RNA duplexes containing 2'-O-methyl and 2'-S-methyl substitutions: a molecular dynamics investigation. (22/4528)

The physical properties of a DNA:RNA hybrid sequence d(CCAACGTTGG)*(CCAACGUUGG) with modifications at the C2'-positions of the DNA strand by 2'-O-methyl (OMe) and 2'-S-methyl (SMe) groups are studied using computational techniques. Molecular dynamics simu-lations of SMe_DNA:RNA, OMe_DNA:RNA and standard DNA:RNA hybrids in explicit water indicate that the nature of the C2'-substituent has a significant influence on the macromolecular conformation. While the RNA strand in all duplexes maintains a strong preference for C3'-endo sugar puckering, the DNA strand shows considerable variation in this parameter depending on the nature of the C2'-substituent. In general, the preference for C3'-endo puckering follows the following trend: OMe_DNA>DNA>SMe_DNA. These results are further corroborated using ab initio methods. Both gas phase and implicit solvation calculations show the C2'-OMe group stabilizes the C3'-endo conformation while the less electronegative SMe group stabilizes the C2'-endo conformation when compared to the standard nucleoside. The macromolecular conformation of these nucleic acids also follows an analogous trend with the degree of A-form character decreasing as OMe_DNA:RNA>DNA:RNA>SMe_DNA:RNA. A structural analysis of these complexes is performed and compared with experimental melting point temper-atures to explain the structural basis to improved binding affinity across this series. Finally, a possible correlation between RNase H activity and conformational changes within the minor groove of these complexes is hypothesized.  (+info)

Absorption and intestinal metabolism of SDZ-RAD and rapamycin in rats. (23/4528)

The new immunosuppressive agent, SDZ-RAD, and its analog rapamycin were examined for intestinal absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability in Wistar rats. Intestinal first-pass metabolism studies from rat jejunum showed that at 0.5 mg of SDZ-RAD/kg rat, 50% of the parent compound was metabolized in the intestinal mucosa, and this decreased to around 30% when SDZ-RAD was increased to 5.0 mg/kg rat. Results for rapamycin at the low dose were similar to those for SDZ-RAD, but at the higher dose only 1 to 14% of the total rapamycin absorbed was metabolized by the intestine. After i.v. administration of 1 mg/kg SDZ-RAD or rapamycin, the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for rapamycin was twice that of SDZ-RAD, resulting in a systemic clearance of 6.2 ml/min and 3.0 ml/min for SDZ-RAD and rapamycin, respectively. However, the AUC for oral absorption was similar for the two compounds: 140 and 172 ng*h/ml for SDZ-RAD and rapamycin, respectively. Because blood clearance was faster for SDZ-RAD after i.v. administration, the absolute oral bioavailability for SDZ-RAD was 16% compared with 10% for rapamycin. Overall, the data suggest that intestinal first pass is a major site of metabolism for SDZ-RAD and rapamycin and that intestinal absorption of SDZ-RAD was much faster than that of rapamycin. This allowed it to counteract the combined actions of faster systemic clearance and increased intestinal metabolism, resulting in comparable absolute exposure when given orally. Also, the coadministration of cyclosporin A with SDZ-RAD was shown to dramatically increase blood AUCs for SDZ-RAD, probably through saturating intestinal metabolism mechanisms.  (+info)

Clavulanic acid inhibition of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus 569/H. (24/4528)

Inactivation of beta-lactamase I by clavulanic acid was investigated. Clavulanic acid induced inhibition of the enzyme was found to be progressive with time. Benzylpenicillin provided protection against the adverse effects of the inhibitor initially, however, the enzyme was irreversibly inhibited in a progressive manner even in the presence of substrate. Reaction of beta-lactamase I with clavulanic acid, in the presence of ampicillin, led to a very rapid inactivation of the enzyme.  (+info)