A requirement for protein kinase C inhibition for calcium-triggered apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
We have evaluated the cytotoxicities of the combinations of calcium mobilizers and PKC inhibitors against human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Here we report that calcium mobilizers alone or PKC inhibitors alone do not induce apoptosis in human ALL cells. However, the combinations of calcium mobilizers with potent inhibitors of PKC cause significant apoptosis in ALL cells. Our results provide experimental evidence that PKC blocks Ca2+-triggered apoptosis in human ALL cells. Thus, PKC inhibitors can be used to enhance the antileukemic activity of chemical or biological agents that trigger an apoptotic calcium signal in ALL cells. The exquisite sensitivity of ALL cells to calcium-dependent apoptosis in the presence of PKC inhibitors could provide the basis for new treatment programs against ALL. (+info)
Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin.
Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively. (+info)
Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties.
A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. (+info)
BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.
A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells. (+info)
Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities.
Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (+info)
Resveratrol suppresses cell transformation and induces apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway.
Resveratrol, a plant constituent enriched in the skin of grapes, is one of the most promising agents for the prevention of cancer. However, the mechanism of the anti-carcinogenic activity of resveratrol is not well understood. Here we offer a possible explanation of its anti-cancer effect. Resveratrol suppresses tumor promoter-induced cell transformation and markedly induces apoptosis, transactivation of p53 activity and expression of p53 protein in the same cell line and at the same dosage. Also, resveratrol-induced apoptosis occurs only in cells expressing wild-type p53 (p53+/+), but not in p53-deficient (p53-/-) cells, while there is no difference in apoptosis induction between normal lymphoblasts and sphingomyelinase-deficient cell lines. These results demonstrate for the first time that resveratrol induces apoptosis through activation of p53 activity, suggesting that its anti-tumor activity may occur through the induction of apoptosis. (+info)
Effect of retinoids on AOM-induced colon cancer in rats: modulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and aberrant crypt foci.
We have previously reported that the retinoids, 4-(hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) prevented azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors and along with 2-(carboxyphenyl)retinamide (2-CPR) prevented aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In this study, we evaluated the effect of 2-CPR on AOM-induced colon tumors and the effect of the three retinoids on apoptosis and cell proliferation. Male F344 rats were administrated 15 mg/kg AOM at weeks 7 and 8 of age. 2-CPR (315 mg/kg) was administered in the diet starting either 1 week before or at week 12 after the first dose of AOM. The rats continued to receive the 2-CPR until killed at week 46. Unlike the demonstrated prevention of colon cancer by the other two retinoids, both dosing schedules of 2-CPR resulted in an approximate doubling of the yield of colon tumors. In adenomas, 2-CPR, 4-HPR and 9-cis-RA were equally effective in reducing mitotic activity, while only 4-HPR and 9-cis-RA but not 2-CPR enhanced apoptosis. When administered for only the 6 days prior to killing 4-HPR but not 2-CPR decreased the Mitotic Index and increased the Apoptotic Index in adenomas. In non-involved crypts, chronic exposure to 4-HPR and 9-cis-RA in contrast to 2-CPR reduced the Mitotic Index and enhanced the Apoptotic Index. In concurrence with our previous study, both 2-CPR and 4-HPR were very potent in preventing ACF when administered in the diet starting 1 week before the first dose of AOM and continuing for the 5 weeks of the study. Hence, unlike the other two retinoids, 2-CPR, although very potent in preventing ACF, enhanced rather than prevented AOM-induced colon cancer. Furthermore, our results suggest that the effect of 2-CPR on tumor yield is different from 4-HPR and 9-cis-RA because, unlike them, it does not enhance apoptosis. (+info)
Synthesis, anti-HIV and anticancer activities of new 4-(2-mercaptobenzenesulfonyl)perhydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ones.
Syntheses of N-(6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-7-R1-1,4,2-benzodithiazyn-3-yl)-N'-(2- hydroxyethyl)hydrazines (IIa-d], N-(6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-7-methyl-1,4,2-benzodithiazyn-3-yl)-N'-(2- chloroethyl)hydrazine [IV], 4-(4-chloro-5-R1-2-mercaptobenzenesulfonyl)perhydro-1,2,4-triaz in-3-ones [IIIa-d] and 5-chloro-4-methyl-2-(3-oxoperhydro-1,2,4-triazin-4- ylsulfonyl)phenylthioacetic acid [V] have been described. Preliminary screening data have indicated that compounds [IIIa-d] exhibit either a moderate or a high anti-HIV activity and a moderate anticancer activity in some human tumor cell lines. (+info)